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MREMAP(2)		   Linux Programmers Manual		    MREMAP(2)

       mremap - re-map a virtual memory address

       #define _GNU_SOURCE

       void *mremap(void *old_address, size_t old_size,
		    size_t new_size, int flags);

       mremap()  expands  (or shrinks) an existing memory mapping, potentially
       moving it at the same time (controlled by the flags  argument  and  the
       available virtual address space).

       old_address  is	the  old  address of the virtual memory block that you
       want to expand (or shrink).  Note  that	old_address  has  to  be  page
       aligned.  old_size  is  the  old  size  of  the	virtual  memory block.
       new_size is the requested size of the virtual memory  block  after  the

       In Linux the memory is divided into pages.  A user process has (one or)
       several linear virtual memory segments.	Each  virtual  memory  segment
       has  one  or  more  mappings  to real memory pages (in the page table).
       Each virtual memory segment has its  own  protection  (access  rights),
       which  may  cause  a  segmentation  violation if the memory is accessed
       incorrectly (e.g., writing to a read-only segment).  Accessing  virtual
       memory  outside	of  the segments will also cause a segmentation viola

       mremap() uses the Linux page table scheme.  mremap() changes  the  map
       ping  between  virtual addresses and memory pages.  This can be used to
       implement a very efficient realloc(3).

       The flags bit-mask argument may be 0, or include the following flag:

	      By default, if there is not sufficient space to expand a mapping
	      at  its  current location, then mremap() fails.  If this flag is
	      specified, then the kernel is permitted to relocate the  mapping
	      to a new virtual address, if necessary.  If the mapping is relo
	      cated, then absolute pointers  into  the	old  mapping  location
	      become  invalid (offsets relative to the starting address of the
	      mapping should be employed).

       MREMAP_FIXED (since Linux 2.3.31)
	      This flag serves a similar purpose  to  the  MAP_FIXED  flag  of
	      mmap(2).	 If  this  flag  is specified, then mremap() accepts a
	      fifth argument,  void  *new_address,  which  specifies  a  page-
	      aligned  address to which the mapping must be moved.  Any previ
	      ous mapping at the address range specified  by  new_address  and
	      new_size	is  unmapped.	If  MREMAP_FIXED  is  specified,  then
	      MREMAP_MAYMOVE must also be specified.

       If the memory segment specified by old_address and old_size  is	locked
       (using mlock(2) or similar), then this lock is maintained when the seg
       ment is resized and/or relocated.  As a consequence, the amount of mem
       ory locked by the process may change.

       On  success  mremap() returns a pointer to the new virtual memory area.
       On error, the value MAP_FAILED (that is, (void *) -1) is returned,  and
       errno is set appropriately.

       EAGAIN The  caller tried to expand a memory segment that is locked, but
	      this was	not  possible  without	exceeding  the	RLIMIT_MEMLOCK
	      resource limit.

       EFAULT "Segmentation  fault."  Some address in the range old_address to
	      old_address+old_size is an invalid virtual  memory  address  for
	      this  process.  You can also get EFAULT even if there exist map
	      pings that cover the whole address space	requested,  but  those
	      mappings are of different types.

       EINVAL An invalid argument was given.  Possible causes are: old_address
	      was not page aligned;  a	value  other  than  MREMAP_MAYMOVE  or
	      MREMAP_FIXED was specified in flags; new_size was zero; new_size
	      or new_address was invalid; or the new address  range  specified
	      by  new_address  and  new_size  overlapped the old address range
	      specified by old_address and old_size; or MREMAP_FIXED was spec
	      ified without also specifying MREMAP_MAYMOVE.

       ENOMEM The  memory  area  cannot  be  expanded  at  the current virtual
	      address, and the MREMAP_MAYMOVE flag is not set in  flags.   Or,
	      there is not enough (virtual) memory available.

       This  call  is  Linux-specific,	and  should  not  be  used in programs
       intended to be portable.

       Prior  to  version  2.4,  glibc	did  not  expose  the  definition   of
       MREMAP_FIXED,  and  the	prototype  for	mremap() did not allow for the
       new_address argument.

       brk(2), getpagesize(2), getrlimit(2), mlock(2), mmap(2), sbrk(2),  mal
       loc(3), realloc(3), feature_test_macros(7)

       Your favorite OS text book for more information on paged memory.  (Mod
       ern Operating Systems by Andrew S. Tannenbaum, Inside Linux by  Randolf
       Bentson, The Design of the UNIX Operating System by Maurice J. Bach.)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.05 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2005-09-13			     MREMAP(2)

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