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MADVISE(2)		   Linux Programmers Manual		   MADVISE(2)

       madvise - give advice about use of memory


       int madvise(void *addr, size_t length, int advice);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       madvise(): _BSD_SOURCE

       The madvise() system call advises the kernel about how to handle paging
       input/output in the address range beginning at address  addr  and  with
       size  length bytes.  It allows an application to tell the kernel how it
       expects to use some mapped or shared memory areas, so that  the	kernel
       can  choose  appropriate  read-ahead and caching techniques.  This call
       does not influence the semantics of the application (except in the case
       of  MADV_DONTNEED),  but  may influence its performance.  The kernel is
       free to ignore the advice.

       The advice is indicated in the advice argument which can be

	      No special treatment.  This is the default.

	      Expect page references in random order.  (Hence, read ahead  may
	      be less useful than normally.)

	      Expect  page  references	in sequential order.  (Hence, pages in
	      the given range can be aggressively read ahead, and may be freed
	      soon after they are accessed.)

	      Expect  access  in  the near future.  (Hence, it might be a good
	      idea to read some pages ahead.)

	      Do not expect access in the near future.	(For the  time	being,
	      the  application is finished with the given range, so the kernel
	      can free resources associated with it.)  Subsequent accesses  of
	      pages  in this range will succeed, but will result either in re-
	      loading of the memory contents from the underlying  mapped  file
	      (see  mmap(2)) or zero-fill-on-demand pages for mappings without
	      an underlying file.

       MADV_REMOVE (Since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Free up a given range of pages and its associated backing store.
	      Currently,  only	shmfs/tmpfs  supports this; other file systems
	      return with the error ENOSYS.

       MADV_DONTFORK (Since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Do not make the pages in this range available to the child after
	      a  fork(2).   This  is useful to prevent copy-on-write semantics
	      from changing the physical location of a page(s) if  the	parent
	      writes  to  it  after  a	fork(2).  (Such page relocations cause
	      problems for hardware that DMAs into the page(s).)

       MADV_DOFORK (Since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Undo the effect of MADV_DONTFORK, restoring the  default	behav
	      ior, whereby a mapping is inherited across fork(2).

       On  success  madvise() returns zero.  On error, it returns -1 and errno
       is set appropriately.

       EAGAIN A kernel resource was temporarily unavailable.

       EBADF  The map exists, but the area maps something that isnt a file.

       EINVAL The value len is negative, addr is not page-aligned,  advice  is
	      not  a  valid value, or the application is attempting to release
	      locked or shared pages (with MADV_DONTNEED).

       EIO    (for MADV_WILLNEED) Paging in this area would  exceed  the  pro
	      cesss maximum resident set size.

       ENOMEM (for MADV_WILLNEED) Not enough memory: paging in failed.

       ENOMEM Addresses  in  the  specified range are not currently mapped, or
	      are outside the address space of the process.

       POSIX.1b.   POSIX.1-2001  describes  posix_madvise(3)  with   constants
       POSIX_MADV_NORMAL,  etc., with a behavior close to that described here.
       There is a similar posix_fadvise(2) for file access.

       MADV_REMOVE, MADV_DONTFORK, and MADV_DOFORK are Linux-specific.

   Linux Notes
       The current Linux implementation (2.4.0) views this system call more as
       a  command  than as advice and hence may return an error when it cannot
       do what it usually would do in  response  to  this  advice.   (See  the
       ERRORS description above.)  This is non-standard behavior.

       The  Linux  implementation  requires  that  the	address  addr be page-
       aligned, and allows length to be zero.  If there are some parts of  the
       specified  address range that are not mapped, the Linux version of mad
       vise() ignores them and applies the  call  to  the  rest  (but  returns
       ENOMEM from the system call, as it should).

       getrlimit(2), mincore(2), mmap(2), mprotect(2), msync(2), munmap(2)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.05 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2008-04-22			    MADVISE(2)

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