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ZIP(1)									ZIP(1)

       zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files

       zip   [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]   [-b path]	 [-n suffixes]
       [-t mmddyyyy] [-tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile

       zip  is	a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, Amiga and Acorn RISC  OS.

       It  is  analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and com
       press(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katzs ZIP for  MSDOS  sys

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1)),  unpacks  zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP,  and  PKZIP
       and  PKUNZIP  can work with archives produced by zip.  zip version 2.32
       is compatible with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  cannot  extract
       files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 2.32. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip,  run	each  without  specifying  any
       parameters on the command line.

       The  program  is  useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress
       ing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program  puts	one or more compressed files into a single zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of  last modification, protection, and check information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be  packed  into	a  zip
       archive	with  a  single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
       common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation)  and
       can  also  store  files without compression.  zip automatically chooses
       the better of the two for each file to be compressed.

       The basic command format is

	      zip options archive inpattern inpattern ...

       where archive is a new or existing  zip	archive  and  inpattern  is  a
       directory  or file path optionally including wildcards.	When given the
       name of an existing zip archive, zip  will  replace  identically  named
       entries	in the zip archive or add entries for new names.  For example,
       if foo.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the	direc
       tory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

	      zip -r foo.zip foo

       or more concisely

	      zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.zip.  After
       this,  foo.zip  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       If  the file list is specified as -@, [Not on MacOS] zip takes the list
       of input files from standard input.  Under UNIX,  this  option  can  be
       used  to  powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1) command.  For
       example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and
       its subdirectories:

	      find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note  that  the pattern "*.[ch]" must be quoted to keep the shell from
       expanding it).  zip will also accept a single dash  ("-")  as  the  zip
       file name, in which case it will write the zip file to standard output,
       allowing the output to be piped to another program. For example:

	      zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified  block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip  also  accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be com
       pressed, in which case it will  read  the  file	from  standard	input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

	      tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up the current directory. This generally  produces  better  compression
       than  the  previous  example  using the -r option, because zip can take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

	      unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts
       as a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For  exam

	      tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

	      tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip  archives  created in this manner can be extracted with the program
       funzip which is provided in the unzip package, or by  gunzip  which  is
       provided in the gzip package. For example:

	      dd if=/dev/nrst0	ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When  changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file
       with the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of
       creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If  the	name  of  the  zip  archive does not contain an extension, the
       extension .zip is added. If the	name  already  contains  an  extension
       other than .zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.

       -a     [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

       -A     Adjust  self-extracting  executable  archive.  A self-extracting
	      executable archive is created by prepending the SFX stub	to  an
	      existing	archive.  The  -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
	      offsets  stored  in  the	archive  to  take  into  account  this
	      "preamble" data.

       Note:  self-extracting  archives  for the Amiga are a special case.  At
       present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these  without  corrupting them.  -J can be used to remove the SFX stub
       if other updates need to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
	      bit  0: Dont add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
	      bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
	      bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
	      Use  the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For exam

		     zip -b /tmp stuff *

	      will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,  copy
	      ing  over  stuff.zip  to	the  current directory when done. This
	      option is only useful when updating an existing archive, and the
	      file  system  containing	this  old archive does not have enough
	      space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.

       -c     Add one-line comments for each file.  File  operations  (adding,
	      updating)  are  done  first, and the user is then prompted for a
	      one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment  followed  by
	      return, or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

	      will  remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start
	      with foo/harry/, and all of the files that end with .o  (in  any
	      path).   Note  that  shell pathname expansion has been inhibited
	      with backslashes, so that zip can see  the  asterisks,  enabling
	      zip  to  match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the
	      contents of the current directory.  You can also use  quotes  to
	      escape wildcards, as in

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

	      Under systems where the shell does not expand wildcards, such as
	      MSDOS, the backslashes are not needed.  The above would then be

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/* *.o

	      Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in  the
	      zip  archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
	      case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.

       -df    [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
	      Good   for   exporting   files   to  foreign  operating-systems.
	      Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

       -D     Do not create  entries  in  the  zip  archive  for  directories.
	      Directory   entries   are  created  by  default  so  that  their
	      attributes can be saved in the  zip  archive.   The  environment
	      variable	ZIPOPT	can be used to change the default options. For
	      example under Unix with sh:

		     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

	      (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except -i and -x
	      and  can	include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand
	      for -x "*/" but the latter cannot  be  set  as  default  in  the
	      ZIPOPT environment variable.

       -e     Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which
	      is entered on the terminal in response to a  prompt  (this  will
	      not  be  echoed;	if  standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
	      with an error).  The password prompt is  repeated  to  save  the
	      user  from typing errors.  Note that this encrypts with standard
	      pkzip encryption which is considered weak.

       -E     [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as  file

       -f     Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if
	      it has been modified more recently than the version  already  in
	      the  archive;  unlike  the  update option (-u) this will not add
	      files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -f foo

	      This command should be run from the same	directory  from  which
	      the  original  zip  command  was	run, since paths stored in zip
	      archives are always relative.

	      Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
	      according  to the local timezone in order for the -f , -u and -o
	      options to work correctly.  The reasons behind this are somewhat
	      subtle but have to do with the differences between the Unix-for
	      mat file times (always in GMT) and most of the  other  operating
	      systems  (always	local  time)  and the necessity to compare the
	      two.  A typical TZ value is MET-1MEST (Middle European  time
	      with automatic adjustment for summertime or Daylight Savings

       -F     Fix the zip archive. This option can be used if some portions of
	      the  archive  are  missing. It is not guaranteed to work, so you
	      MUST make a backup of the original archive first.

	      When doubled as in -FF the compressed  sizes  given  inside  the
	      damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signa
	      tures to identify the limits between the	archive  members.  The
	      single  -F  is more reliable if the archive is not too much dam
	      aged, for example if it has only been  truncated,  so  try  this
	      option first.

	      Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
	      transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
	      the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
	      Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
	      archive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating
	      a new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore  the
	      archive  to  its	original  state. If the restoration fails, the
	      archive might become corrupted.  This  option  is  ignored  when
	      theres  no existing archive or when at least one archive member
	      must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears  if  zip  is
	      run with no arguments).

       -i files
	      Include only the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

	      which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
	      directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
	      equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

	      PKZIP  does  not	allow  recursion in directories other than the
	      current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitu
	      tion,  so  that  the  name  matching  is performed by zip at all
	      directory levels.  Not escaping  wildcards  on  shells  that  do
	      wildcard	substitution before zip gets the command line may seem
	      to work but files in subdirectories matching  the  pattern  will
	      never  be checked and so not matched.  For shells, such as Win32
	      command prompts, that do not replace  file  patterns  containing
	      wildcards with the respective file names, zip will do the recur
	      sion and escaping the wildcards is not needed.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

	      which will only include the files in the current	directory  and
	      its   subdirectories   that  match  the  patterns  in  the  file
	      include.lst, one file pattern per line.

       -I     [Acorn RISC OS] Dont scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
	      will  not  consider  Image  files  (eg.  DOS partitions or Spark
	      archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but  will  store
	      them as single files.

	      For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
	      will result in a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con
	      tent)  while  using the I option will result in a zipfile con
	      taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
	      obtained (without the I option) if SparkFS isnt loaded.

       -j     Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
	      store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
	      (relative to the current path).

       -jj    [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
	      volume will be stored. By default  the  relative	path  will  be

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k     Attempt  to  convert  the  names	and paths to conform to MSDOS,
	      store only the MSDOS attribute (just the	user  write  attribute
	      from  UNIX), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
	      it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
	      cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

       -l     Translate  the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS con
	      vention CR LF. This option should not be used on	binary	files.
	      This  option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
	      PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR  LF,
	      this option adds an extra CR. This ensures that unzip -a on Unix
	      will get back an exact copy of the original file,  to  undo  the
	      effect  of  zip  -l.   See  the note on binary detection for -ll

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
	      should  not be used on binary files and a warning will be issued
	      when a file is converted that later is detected  to  be  binary.
	      This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for
	      unzip under Unix.

	      In Zip 2.31 and later, binary detection has been changed from  a
	      simple  percentage  of binary characters being considered binary
	      to a more selective method that should consider  files  in  many
	      character  sets, including UTF-8, that only include text charac
	      ters in that character set to be text.  This allows unzip -a  to
	      convert these files.

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
	      deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
	      zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
	      files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
	      until zip has created the archive without error.	This is useful
	      for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
	      recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
	      before removing all input files.

       -MM    All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all  input
	      files  found  must  be readable.	Normally when an input pattern
	      does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is	issued
	      and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or
	      not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
	      either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
	      unreadable new files being skipped  and  files  already  in  the
	      archive  remaining  unchanged.  After the archive is created, if
	      any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code  (18
	      on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most
	      systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an	input  pattern
	      is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
	      issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In  either  case
	      zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

	      This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
	      so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.   It
	      is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
	      with an error if any input pattern doesnt match  at  least  one
	      file  and  if  any matched files are unreadable.	If you want to
	      create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
	      skipped, dont use -MM and just check the return code.

       -n suffixes
	      Do  not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.
	      Such files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output  zip
	      file,  so  that  zip  doesnt  waste its time trying to compress
	      them.  The suffixes are separated  by  either  colons  or  semi
	      colons.  For example:

		     zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

	      will  copy  everything from foo into foo.zip, but will store any
	      files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without	trying
	      to  compress  them  (image  and sound files often have their own
	      specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not com
	      press	 files	   with     extensions	   in	  the	  list
	      .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.  Such files are stored directly  in
	      the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
	      to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

		     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

	      To attempt compression on all files, use:

		     zip -n : foo

	      The maximum compression option -9 also attempts  compression  on
	      all files regardless of extension.

	      On  Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3
	      hex digit format). By default, zip does not compress files  with
	      filetypes  in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and
	      PackDir files).

       -N     [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS  filenotes  as  zipfile  com
	      ments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. If
	      -c is used also, you are prompted for comments  only  for  those
	      files that do not have filenotes.

       -o     Set  the	"last  modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
	      (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
	      archive.	 This  can  be	used  without any other operations, if
	      desired.	For example:

		     zip -o foo

	      will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time
	      of the entries in foo.zip.

       -P password
	      use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSE
	      CURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide	ways  for  any
	      user  to see the current command line of any other user; even on
	      stand-alone systems there is  always  the  threat  of  over-the-
	      shoulder	peeking.   Storing the plaintext password as part of a
	      command line in an automated script  is  even  worse.   Whenever
	      possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass
	      words.  (And where  security  is	truly  important,  use	strong
	      encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
	      weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     Quiet  mode;  eliminate  informational  messages	 and   comment
	      prompts.	 (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and background

       -Qn    [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header  with
	      n defined as
	      bit  0: Dont add headers for any file
	      bit  1: Add headers for all files
	      bit  2: Dont wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r     Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

		     zip -r foo.zip foo

	      or a bit more concisely

		     zip -r foo foo

	      In  this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in
	      a zip archive named foo.zip, including files with names starting
	      with ".", since the recursion does not use the shells file-name
	      substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a  specific
	      subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
	      the -i option to specify the pattern of files  to  be  included.
	      You  should  not	use  -r with the name ".*", since that matches
	      ".."  which will attempt to zip up the parent directory  (proba
	      bly not what was intended).

       -R     Travel  the directory structure recursively starting at the cur
	      rent directory; for example:

		     zip -R foo *.c

	      In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
	      the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
	      foo.zip.	Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden	files.
	      [MacOS]  Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored oth

       -t mmddyyyy
	      Do not operate on files modified prior to  the  specified  date,
	      where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
	      and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date	format	yyyy-mm-dd  is
	      also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

		     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

	      will  add  all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
	      last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
	      Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
	      where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
	      and  yyyy  is  the year.	The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
	      also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

		     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

	      will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
	      last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive

       -T     Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
	      old  zip	file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
	      files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
	      has  been modified more recently than the version already in the
	      zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -u stuff *

	      will add any new files in the current directory, and update  any
	      files  which  have been modified since the zip archive stuff.zip
	      was last created/modified (note that zip will not  try  to  pack
	      stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

	      Note  that  the  -u  option  with  no arguments acts like the -f
	      (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

	      Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
	      the  display  of	a  progress  indicator	during compression and
	      requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile  structure  oddi

	      When  -v	is the only command line argument, and either stdin or
	      stdout is not redirected to  a  file,  a	diagnostic  screen  is
	      printed.	In  addition  to  the  help screen header with program
	      name, version, and release date, some pointers to  the  Info-ZIP
	      home  and  distribution sites are given. Then, it shows informa
	      tion about the target environment (compiler type and version, OS
	      version, compilation date and the enabled optional features used
	      to create the zip executable.

       -V     [VMS] Save VMS file  attributes  and  use  portable  form.   zip
	      archives created with this option are truncated at EOF but still
	      may not be usable on other systems depending on the  file  types
	      being zipped.

       -VV    [VMS]  Save VMS file attributes.	zip archives created with this
	      option include the entire file and should be  able  to  recreate
	      most  VMS files on VMS systems but these archives will generally
	      not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS] Append the version	number	of  the  files	to  the  name,
	      including  multiple  versions  of files.	(default: use only the
	      most recent version of a specified file).

       -x files
	      Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

	      which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  exclud
	      ing  all	the  files  that  end in .o.  The backslash avoids the
	      shell filename substitution, so that the name matching  is  per
	      formed  by  zip  at  all directory levels.  If you do not escape
	      wildcards in patterns it may seem to work but files in subdirec
	      tories will not be checked for matches.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

	      which  will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while exclud
	      ing  all	the  files  that  match  the  patterns	in  the   file
	      exclude.lst (each file pattern on a separate line).

       -X     Do  not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,
	      uid/gid and file times on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of com
	      pressing	and  storing  the  file  referred to by the link (UNIX

       -z     Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
	      comment  is  ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
	      of file condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
	      comment can be taken from a file:

		     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate	the  speed of compression using the specified digit #,
	      where -0 indicates no compression (store all  files),  -1  indi
	      cates  the  fastest compression method (less compression) and -9
	      indicates the slowest compression method	(optimal  compression,
	      ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32]  Use  privileges	(if  granted) to obtain all aspects of
	      WinNT security.

       -@     Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file
	      name per line.

       -$     [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include  the  volume label for the drive
	      holding the first file to be compressed.	If you want to include
	      only  the  volume  label	or  to force a specific drive, use the
	      drive name as first file name, as in:

		     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

	      zip stuff *

       creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the  files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
       suffix is added automatically, unless that archive name given  contains
       a  dot  already;  this  allows the explicit specification of other suf

       Because of the way the shell does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

	      zip stuff .* *

       Even  this  will not include any subdirectories from the current direc

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

	      zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive foo.zip, containing all the files  and  directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You  may  want  to  make  a zip archive that contains the files in foo,
       without recording the directory name, foo.  You can use the  -j	option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

	      zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold
       both the  original  directory  and  the	corresponding  compressed  zip
       archive.   In  this case, you can create the archive in steps using the
       -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom,  dick,  and	harry,
       you can:

	      zip -rm foo foo/tom
	      zip -rm foo foo/dick
	      zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where  the  first  command creates foo.zip, and the next two add to it.
       At the completion of each zip command,  the  last  created  archive  is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       This  section  applies  only  to  UNIX, though the ?, *, and [] special
       characters are implemented on other systems including MSDOS and	Win32.
       Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The  UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on command
       arguments.  The special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match any character in the range indicated within  the  brackets
	      (example: [a-f], [0-9]).

       When  these  characters	are  encountered (without being escaped with a
       backslash or quotes), the shell will look for  files  relative  to  the
       current	path  that  match the pattern, and replace the argument with a
       list of the names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in  the  zip
       archive	being  modified  or,  in  the  case  of the -x (exclude) or -i
       (include) options, on the list of files to be  operated	on,  by  using
       backslashes  or	quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion.
       In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files to  do,  it
       first  looks  for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then
       adds it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it,  it  looks
       for  the  name  in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using
       the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For  each
       match,  it  will  add  that  name to the list of files to be processed,
       unless this name matches one given with the  -x	option,  or  does  not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names that end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.   Note  that
       the  backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with  the
       -f  (freshen)  and  -d  (delete)  options,  and	sometimes after the -x
       (exclude) option when used with an appropriate operation (add, -u,  -f,
       or -d).

       ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
	      native filenames with one of  the  specified  extensions	to  be
	      added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.  zip

	      [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1), tar(1), unzip(1), gzip(1)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

	      0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

	      2      unexpected end of zip file.

	      3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro
		     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
		     during program initialization.

	      5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.   Pro
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      6      entry too large to split (with zipsplit), read, or write

	      7      invalid comment format

	      8      zip -T failed or out of memory

	      9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi

	      10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

	      11     read or seek error

	      12     zip has nothing to do

	      13     missing or empty zip file

	      14     error writing to a file

	      15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

	      16     bad command line parameters

	      18     zip could not open a specified file to read

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking	things,  so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit,
	and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors, where the
       ? is 0 (warning) for zip value 12, 2 (error) for the zip values 3, 6,
       7, 9, 13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones.

       zip 2.32 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip  1.1  to  produce
       zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip  files produced by zip 2.32 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP
       1.10, if they contain encrypted members or if they have	been  produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not  use  encryption  and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under  VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only
       stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip.   Others  can
       be  converted  using  Rahul  Dhesis BILF program.  This version of zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans
       fer zip files from Vax to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on the Vax.
       When transferring from MSDOS to Vax, type "set file type fixed" on  the
       Vax.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under  VMS,  zip  hangs	for file specification that uses DECnet syntax

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla
       mation  mark  or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit
       DosFindFirst/Next dont find such names.	Other programs	such  as  GNU
       tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under  OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for
       compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit version  of  DosQuery
       PathInfo().  Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA sizes
       when DIRing a file.  However, the  structure  layout  returned  by  the
       32-bit  DosQueryPathInfo()  is  a  bit different, it uses extra padding
       bytes and link pointers (its a linked list)  to	have  all  fields  on
       4-byte  boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. There
       fore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size)  dif
       fers  from  that  reported  by  DIR.   zip stores the 32-bit format for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Development  of	zip 3.0  and unzip 6.0 are underway.  See those source
       distributions for many new features and the latest bug fixes.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2006 Info-ZIP.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno  van  der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and
       Paul Kienitz.  Permission is granted to any individual  or  institution
       to use, copy, or redistribute this software so long as all of the orig
       inal files are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that  this
       copyright notice is retained.


       Please send bug reports and comments to: zip-bugs at  www.info-zip.org.
       For  bug  reports,  please include the version of zip (see zip -h), the
       make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine and operating
       system in use, and as much additional information as possible.

       Thanks  to  R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this
       project, and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to  Phil  Katz
       for  placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression for
       mat, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting  minor  changes  to
       the  file  format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate for
       mat; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some	useful
       ideas  for  the	compression  algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales,
       Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
       for  the  Info-ZIP  group to use; and most importantly, to the Info-ZIP
       group itself (listed in the file infozip.who)  without  whose  tireless
       testing	and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been pos
       sible.  Finally we should thank (blame) the first  Info-ZIP  moderator,
       David  Kirschbaum,  for	getting  us into this mess in the first place.
       The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.

Info-ZIP		     19 June 2006 (v2.32)			ZIP(1)

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