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ISPELL(1)							     ISPELL(1)

       ispell,	buildhash,  munchlist,	findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
       Interactive spelling checking

       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] {-a|-A}
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

	      [-t] [-n] [-h] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file]  [-p
	      file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
		 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
		 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2

       Ispell  is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on
       Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In  this
       case,  ispell  will display each word which does not appear in the dic
       tionary at the top of the screen and allow you to change it.  If  there
       are  "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a sin
       gle letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters, or
       a  missing  space or hyphen), then they are also displayed on following
       lines.  As well as "near misses", ispell may display other  guesses  at
       ways  to  make  the word from a known root, with each guess preceded by
       question marks.	Finally, the line containing the word and the previous
       line  are  printed  at  the bottom of the screen.  If your terminal can
       display in reverse video, the word itself is highlighted.  You have the
       option  of  replacing  the word completely, or choosing one of the sug
       gested words.  Commands are  single  characters	as  follows  (case  is

	      R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

	      Space  Accept the word this time only.

	      A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

	      I      Accept  the  word,  capitalized as it is in the file, and
		     update private dictionary.

	      U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually,  all
		     lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

	      0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

	      L      Look  up  words  in  system dictionary (controlled by the
		     WORDS compilation option).

	      X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring  misspellings,  and
		     start next file.

	      Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

	      !      Shell escape.

	      ^L     Redraw screen.

	      ^Z     Suspend ispell.

	      ?      Give help screen.

       If  the	-M  switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of
       the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
       be  used  to  suppress  the  mini-menu.	 (The minimenu is displayed by
       default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these  two
       switches will always override the default).

       If  the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of
       lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the screen  (The  default
       is  to  calculate  the amount of context as a certain percentage of the
       screen size).  The amount of context is	subject  to  a	system-imposed

       If  the	-V  flag  is  given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI
       printable character set will always be displayed in the style  of  "cat
       -v",  even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1
       on your system.	This is useful	when  working  with  older  terminals.
       Without	this  switch,  ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if
       they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options (see  below)  also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

	      -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

	      -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

	      -h     The  input  file is in html format.  (This works well for
		     XML and SGML format, too.)

	      -g     The input file is in Debian control file format.	Ispell
		     will ignore everything outside the Description(s).

	      -b     Create  a	backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of
		     the input file.

	      -x     Dont keep the backup file	(it  is  still	created  when
		     changes are made).

	      -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

	      -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

	      -P     Dont generate extra root/affix combinations.

	      -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that arent in  the

	      -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

	      -d file
		     Specify  an  alternate dictionary file.  For example, use
		     -d british to  choose  /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}
		     instead of your default ispell dictionary.

	      -p file
		     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

	      -w chars
		     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

	      -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

	      -T type
		     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The -n and -t options select whether ispell runs in nroff/troff (-n) or
       TeX/LaTeX (-t) input mode (This does not work for html (-h) mode.  How
       ever html-mode is assumed for any files with a ".html" or ".htm" exten
       sion  unless  nroff/troff  or  TeX/LaTeX  modes	have  been  explicitly
       defined).  (The default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG  installa
       tion  option.)	TeX/LaTeX  mode  is  also automatically selected if an
       input file has the  extension  ".tex",  unless  overridden  by  the  -n
       switch.	In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found, ispell
       will skip to the next whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain  com
       mands contain arguments which should not be checked, such as labels and
       reference keys as are found in the \cite command,  since  they  contain
       arbitrary,  non-word arguments.	Spell checking is also suppressed when
       in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

	      \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The -t option does not  rec
       ognize  the  TeX  comment  character  "%",  so comments are also spell-
       checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX syntax.	 Arguments  to	infre
       quently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes checked
       unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if ispell was com
       piled  with  IGNOREBIB  defined.   Otherwise,  the bibliography will be
       checked but the reference key will not.

       References for the tib(1) bibliography system, that is, text between  a
       [.  or  <.  and	.]  or	.>  will  always be ignored in
       TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell  leaves  a	backup	(.bak)
       file  for  each	input  file.  The .bak file contains the pre-corrected
       text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
       left  for  recovery  purposes even with the -x option.  The default for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The -B and -C options control how ispell  handles  run-together	words,
       such as "notthe" for "not the".	If -B is specified, such words will be
       considered as errors, and ispell will list variations with an  inserted
       blank  or  hyphen  as  possible replacements.  If -C is specified, run-
       together words will be considered to be legal  compounds,  so  long  as
       both  components  are in the dictionary, and each component is at least
       as long as a language-dependent minimum	(3  characters,  by  default).
       This  is  useful for languages such as German and Norwegian, where many
       compound words are  formed  by  concatenation.	(Note  that  compounds
       formed  from three or more root words will still be considered errors).
       The default for this option is language-dependent; in  a  multi-lingual
       installation  the  default  may	vary depending on which dictionary you

       The -P and -m options control when ispell automatically generates  sug
       gested  root/affix  combinations for possible addition to your personal
       dictionary.  (These are the entries in the "guess" list which are  pre
       ceded  by  question  marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses are dis
       played only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities that match  the
       current	dictionary.   If -m is specified, such guesses are always dis
       played.	This can be useful if the dictionary has a limited word  list,
       or  a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful when
       using this option, as it can  generate  guesses	that  produce  illegal
       words.	The  default  for  this option is controlled by the dictionary
       file used.

       The -S option suppresses ispells normal behavior of sorting  the  list
       of  possible  replacement words.  Some people may prefer this, since it
       somewhat enhances the probability that the correct word	will  be  low-

       The  -d	option is used to specify an alternate hashed dictionary file,
       other than the default.	If the filename does not contain  a  "/",  the
       library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
       use a dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must  be  used.
       This  is  useful to allow dictionaries for alternate languages.	Unlike
       previous versions of ispell, a  dictionary  of  /dev/null  is  illegal,
       because the dictionary contains the affix table.  If you need an effec
       tively empty dictionary, create	a  one-entry  list  with  an  unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
       If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
       shell  variable WORDLIST may be set, which renames the personal dictio
       nary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST  set
       ting.   If  neither the -p switch nor the WORDLIST environment variable
       is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both the cur
       rent  directory and $HOME, creating one in $HOME if none is found.  The
       preferred name is constructed by appending ".ispell_" to the base  name
       of the hash file.  For example, if you use the English dictionary, your
       personal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".  However, if  the
       file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the personal dictionary
       regardless of the language hash file chosen.  This feature is  included
       primarily for backwards compatibility.

       If  the	-p option is not specified, ispell will look for personal dic
       tionaries in both the current directory and  the  home  directory.   If
       dictionaries  exist  in both places, they will be merged.  If any words
       are added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the  cur
       rent directory if a dictionary already existed in that place; otherwise
       they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The -w option may be used to specify characters other than  alphabetics
       which may also appear in words.	For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
       to be picked up.  Underscores are useful in many  technical  documents.
       There  is an admittedly crude provision in this option for 8-bit inter
       national characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified  in  the
       usual  way  by  inserting  a  backslash followed by the octal character
       code; e.g., "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n"  appears  in
       the character string, the (up to) three characters following are a DEC
       IMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example,  to	include  bells
       and  form  feeds  in  your  words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but
       arent most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric digits other than the three following "n"  are  simply  numeric
       characters.   Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because actual
       alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.	Ispell
       will  typically be used with input from a file, meaning that preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.	If you
       specify	the  -l option, and actually type text from the terminal, this
       may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       The -W option may be used to change the length  of  words  that	ispell
       always  accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all 1-character
       words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
       for  this  switch  is  actually	controlled by the MINWORD installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
       be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
       to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
       of  three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all words
       of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting  of  this  option,
       ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming too  long.
       Obviously,  this option can be very dangerous, since short misspellings
       may be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably  make
       a  last	pass  without  it before you publish your document, to protect
       yourself against errors.

       The -T option is used to specify a default formatter type  for  use  in
       generating  string  characters.	This switch overrides the default type
       determined from the file name.  The type argument may be either one  of
       the  unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or a
       file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no  -T  option  appears
       and  no	type  can be determined from the file name, the default string
       character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The -l or "list" option to ispell is used to produce  a	list  of  mis
       spelled words from the standard input.

       The  -a	option	is  intended  to be used from other programs through a
       pipe.  In this mode, ispell prints a  one-line  version	identification
       message,  and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input line,
       a single line is written to the standard output for each  word  checked
       for  spelling  on  the line.  If the word was found in the main dictio
       nary, or your personal dictionary, then the line contains only  a  *.
       If  the	word was found through affix removal, then the line contains a
       +, a space, and the root word.  If the word was	found  through	com
       pound  formation  (concatenation  of  two  words,  controlled by the -C
       option), then the line contains only a -.

       If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near  misses,  then
       the  line  contains  an &, a space, the misspelled word, a space, the
       number of near misses, the number of characters between	the  beginning
       of  the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon, another
       space, and a list of the near misses separated by  commas  and  spaces.
       Following  the  near  misses  (and identified only by the count of near
       misses), if the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes  to  a
       known root, is a list of suggested derivations, again separated by com
       mas and spaces.	If there are no near misses at all, the line format is
       the  same,  except  that  the & is replaced by ? (and the near-miss
       count is always zero).  The suggested derivations  following  the  near
       misses are in the form:

	      [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
       is a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same  as
       the  input  word  unless  such capitalization is illegal; in the latter
       case each near miss is capitalized correctly according to  the  dictio

       Finally,  if  the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are
       no near misses, then the line contains a #, a space,  the  misspelled
       word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
       Each sentence of text input is  terminated  with  an  additional  blank
       line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

	      OK:    *

	      Root:  + 


	      Miss:  &	    :	,  ,  ...,
		     , ...

	      Guess: ?  0 : , , ...

	      None:  #  

       For example, a dummy dictionary containing the  words  "fray",  "Frey",
       "fry",  and  "refried" might produce the following response to the com
       mand "echo frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
	      (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
	      & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
	      & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to	figure
       out the spelling of a single word.

       The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
       string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
       file  to  read  for  further words.  Input returns to the original file
       when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
       deep.   The  key  string  may  be changed with the environment variable
       INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words pre
       fixed  with any of *, &, @, +, -, ~, #, !, %, or ^.
       A line starting with * tells ispell  to	insert	the  word  into  the
       users dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with &
       tells ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of the  word  into  the
       users dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with @
       causes ispell to accept this word in the future (similar to the A  com
       mand).	A line starting with +, followed immediately by tex or nroff
       will cause ispell to parse future input according the  syntax  of  that
       formatter.   A  line  consisting  solely  of a + will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and  -  returns  ispell  to
       nroff/troff  mode  (but	these commands are obsolete).  However, string
       character type is not changed; the ~ command must be used to do this.
       A  line	starting with ~ causes ispell to set internal parameters (in
       particular, the default string character type) based  on  the  filename
       given  in  the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient, but the
       period must be included.  Instead of a file name or  suffix,  a	unique
       name,  as  listed  in the language affix file, may be specified.)  How
       ever, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the +  command  must  be
       used  to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with # will cause the
       personal dictionary to be saved.  A line prefixed with ! will turn on
       terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed with % will return ispell
       to normal (non-terse) mode.  Any input following the prefix  characters
       +,  -,  #,  !, or % is ignored, as is any input following the
       filename on a ~ line.  To allow	spell-checking	of  lines  beginning
       with  these  characters,  a  line  starting with ^ has that character
       removed before it is passed to the spell-checking code.	It  is	recom
       mended  that  programmatic  interfaces  prefix  every data line with an
       uparrow to protect themselves against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

	      *      Add to personal dictionary

	      @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

	      #      Save current personal dictionary

	      ~      Set parameters based on filename

	      +      Enter TeX mode

	      -      Exit TeX mode

	      !      Enter terse mode

	      %      Exit terse mode

	      ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with *, +,	or
       -,  all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly improves
       running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

       The  -s	option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options,
       and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
       with  a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read more
       input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This may be useful for hand
       shaking with certain text editors.

       The  -f	option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.
       If -f is specified, ispell will write its results to  the  given  file,
       rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
       on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
       also print the options that it was compiled with.

       The  -c,  -e[1-4], and -D options of ispell, are primarily intended for
       use by the munchlist shell script.  The -c  switch  causes  a  list  of
       words  to  be  read  from the standard input.  For each word, a list of
       possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
       Some  of  the  root words will be illegal and must be filtered from the
       output by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an  example,
       the command:

	      echo BOTHER | ispell -c



       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
       list of words.  For example, the command:

	      echo BOTH/R | ispell -e



       An optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1  (-e1)
       is  the	same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the original root/affix
       combination to be prepended to the line:


       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word,  with the original root/affix combination followed by the word it

	      BOTH/R BOTH

       A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to  each  of
       the  level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root and
       the total length of all generated words including the root:

	      BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
	      BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from the  dictionary  file
       to be dumped to standard output.

       Unless  your  system  administrator  has suppressed the feature to save
       space, ispell is aware of the correct capitalizations of words  in  the
       dictionary  and	in  your  personal dictionary.	As well as recognizing
       words that must be capitalized (e.g., George) and words	that  must  be
       all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with "unusual" cap
       italization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized incor
       rectly,	the list of possibilities will include all acceptable capital
       izations.  (More than one capitalization may be acceptable;  for  exam
       ple, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally,  this	feature will not cause you surprises, but there is one
       circumstance you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word  to
       your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
       word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in  the  dictionary),  it
       will  be  marked  as  "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
       sentence)  will be considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will sug
       gest the  capitalized  version.	 You  must  then  compare  the	actual
       spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using  "U"  to
       add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any  word  that  is  in the dictionary in all-lowercase form may
	      appear either in lowercase or capitalized (as at	the  beginning
	      of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
	      cases and there is an uppercase  character  besides  the	first)
	      must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
	      rule (1).  If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase,  it  must
	      appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program builds hashed dictionary files for later use by
       ispell.	The raw word list (with affix flags) is  given	in  dict-file,
       and  the  the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The hashed output
       is written to hash-file.  The  formats  of  the	two  input  files  are
       described  in  ispell(5).   The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual
       status messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce  the  size	of  dictionary
       files,  primarily  personal  dictionary	files.	 It is also capable of
       combining dictionaries from various sources.  The given files are  read
       (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
       roots and affixes that will match the same list of words,  and  written
       to standard output.

       Input  for munchlist contains of raw words (e.g from your personal dic
       tionary files) or root and affix combinations  (probably  generated  in
       earlier	munchlist  runs).  Each word or root/affix combination must be
       on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves  temporary	files  around  under  standard
       names  instead  of  deleting  them, so that the script can be debugged.
       Warning: this option can eat up an enormous amount  of  temporary  file

       The  -v	(verbose)  option  causes  progress messages to be reported to
       stderr so you wont get nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the  specified
       hash-file are removed from the word list.  This can be useful with per
       sonal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for munch
       ing dictionaries in languages other than English.

       The  -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built with
       an older affix file, without risk  of  accidentally  introducing  unin
       tended affix combinations into the dictionary.

       The  -T	option	allows	dictionaries  to  be  converted to a canonical
       string-character format.  The suffix specified  is  looked  up  in  the
       affix  file  (-l  switch) to determine the string-character format used
       for the input file; the output always uses the canonical string-charac
       ter  format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source files
       might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script  is  an  aid	to  writers  of  new  language
       descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
       input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
       or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
       presented along with a count of the number of times it appears  and  an
       estimate  of  the  number  of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary
       hash file if it were added to the language table.   Only  affixes  that
       generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

       If  the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following


       where strip is the string that should be  stripped  from  a  root  word
       before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
       of the number of times that this  strip/add  combination  appears,  and
       bytes  is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in the
       raw dictionary file if this combination is added  to  the  affix  file.
       The  field  separator in the output will be the tab character specified
       by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the  out
       put  is	made visually cleaner (but harder to post-process) by changing
       it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and   represents
       the ASCII tab character.

       The  method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer
       affixes which have common headers or trailers.  For  example,  the  two
       words  "moth" and "mother" will generate not only the obvious substitu
       tion "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly  even	longer
       ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the output
       with such affixes, any affix pair that shares a common header (or,  for
       prefixes,  trailer) string longer than elim characters (default 1) will
       be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a value greater than 1 if
       your  language has string characters; usually the need for this parame
       ter will become obvious when you examine the output of  your  findaffix

       Normally,  the  affixes	are  sorted according to the estimate of bytes
       saved.  The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted  by
       frequency of appearance.

       To  save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times are
       eliminated; this limit may be changed  with  the  -l  switch.   The  -M
       switch  specifies  a  maximum affix length (default 8).	Affixes longer
       than this will not be reported.	(This saves on	temporary  disk  space
       and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes	which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.
       (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
       the add string has been added.)	This reduces both the running time and
       the size of the output file.  This limit may be	changed  with  the  -m
       switch.	 The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
       of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
       internal use.  Normally, this character is a slash ("/"),  but  if  the
       slash  appears as a character in the input word list, a different char
       acter can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed	to  findaffix;
       in  addition,  characters that are not in the English alphabet (if any)
       should be translated to lowercase.

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the  effectiveness  of  a
       proposed  prefix  (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a
       given expanded-file.  Only one affix can be tried with  each  execution
       of  tryaffix, although multiple arguments can be used to describe vary
       ing forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can  add
       either  D  or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already present).
       Each word in the expanded dictionary that ends  (or  begins)  with  the
       chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix (prefix) removed; the dictio
       nary is then searched for root words  that  match  the  stripped  word.
       Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but if the
       -c (count) flag is given, only a statistical summary of the results  is
       written.   The  statistics  given are a count of words the affix poten
       tially applies to and an estimate of the  number  of  dictionary  bytes
       that  a	flag using the affix would save.  The estimate will be high if
       the flag generates words that are currently generated  by  other  affix
       flags  (e.g.,  in English, bathers can be generated by either bath/X or

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
       -e  switch  of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work best if
       uppercase has been folded to lower with tr.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary  file
       to  produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are
       examples.  The addition parts of the argument are  letters  that  would
       have  been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For example,
       in English the affix ing normally strips e for  words  ending  in  that
       letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

	      tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All  of	the  shell  scripts contain documentation as commentary at the
       beginning; sometimes these comments contain useful  information	beyond
       the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
       range text if desired.

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.	It  reads  a  list  of
       words  in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard input,
       and produces a reduced list on standard output  which  combines	common
       roots  found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have differing
       flags will have their flags combined, and roots	which  have  differing
       capitalizations	will  be combined in a way which only preserves impor
       tant capitalization information.  The  optional	aff-file  specifies  a
       language file which defines the character sets used and the meanings of
       the various flags.  The -T switch can be used to select among  alterna
       tive  string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be found
       in an altstringtype statement.

       The ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles  long
       lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
       sort(1) program used to prepare the input to ijoin uses signed  compar
       isons  on  8-bit  characters; the -u switch specifies that sort(1) uses
       unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of  join(1)  are
       duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except that
       ijoin will not handle newline as a field separator.   See  the  join(1)
       manual page for more information.

	      Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

	      Personal dictionary file name

	      Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlists temporary files

	      Hashed  dictionary  (may be found in some other local directory,
	      depending on the system).

	      Affix-definition file for munchlist

       /usr/share/dict/web2 or /usr/share/dict/words
	      For the Lookup function  (depending  on  the  WORDS  compilation

	      Users private dictionary

	      Directory-specific private dictionary

       spell(1),   egrep(1),   look(1),  join(1),  sort(1),  sq(1L),  tib(1L),
       ispell(5L), english(5L)

       It takes several to many seconds for ispell to read in the hash	table,
       depending on size.

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several seconds to gener
       ate all the guesses at corrections for a  misspelled  word;  on	slower
       machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

       The  hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so a
       PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
       with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
       out, the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat  random.

       When  the  -x  flag  is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
       "non-word"  characters.	 Such  characters ought to be deleted from the
       dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts  of  temporary  file
       space  for  large dictionaries.	They do respect the TMPDIR environment
       variable, so this space can be redirected.  However, a lot of the  tem
       porary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help on
       systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative"  is  defined  as
       accepting  the  undocumented  -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist
       takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionarys size in Kb.  (The larger
       ratio  is  for  dictionaries that already have heavy affix use, such as
       the one distributed with ispell).  Munchlist is also very slow;	munch
       ing  a  normal-sized  dictionary  (15K roots, 45K expanded words) takes
       around an hour on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is spent  in
       sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster on machines that have a more
       modern sort that makes better use  of  the  memory  available  to  it.)
       Findaffix is even worse; the smallest English dictionary cannot be pro
       cessed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space,  and  even  after
       specifying  switches to reduce the temporary space required, the script
       will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.

       Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly  ver
       sion.   That  version  was  written  by	R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later
       revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A  complete list of contributors is too large to list here, but is dis
       tributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".

       The version of ispell described by this manual  page  is  International
       Ispell Version 3.1.00, 10/08/93.

				     local			     ISPELL(1)

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