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named(8)		  BSD System Managers Manual		     named(8)

     named - Internet domain name server (DNS)

     named [-d debuglevel] [-p port#] [-(b|c) config_file] [-4 -6 -f -q -r -v]
	   [-u user_name] [-g group_name] [-t directory] [-w directory]

     Named is the Internet domain name server.	See RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035
     for more information on the Internet name-domain system.  Without any
     arguments, named will read the default configuration file
     /etc/bind/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen for queries.  A
     config_file argument given at the end of the command line will override
     any config_file specified by using the -b or -c flags.

     NOTE: Several of nameds options, and much more of its behaviour, can be
     controlled in the configuration file.  Please refer to the configuration
     file guide included with this BIND distribution for further information.

     Options are:

     -4 	 Use IPv4 only when talking to other server.

     -6 	 Use IPv6 only when talking to other server.

     -d debuglevel
		 Print debugging information.  The debuglevel is a number
		 determines the level of messages printed.  If negative,
		 debuglevel is set to 1.

		 NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more
		 sophisticated than it was in older versions of named.	The
		 configuration files logging statement allows for multiple,
		 distinct levels of debugging for each of a large set of cate
		 gories of events (such as queries, transfers in or out,
		 etc.).  Please refer to the configuration file guide included
		 with this BIND distribution for further information about
		 these extensive new capabilities.

     -p port#	 Use the specified remote port number; this is the port number
		 to which named will send queries.  The default value is the
		 standard port number, i.e., the port number returned by
		 getservbyname(3) for service domain.

		 NOTE: Previously, the syntax -p port#[/localport#] was sup
		 ported; the first port was that used when contacting remote
		 servers, and the second one was the service port bound by the
		 local instance of named.  The current usage is equivalent to
		 the old usage without the localport# specified; this func
		 tionality can be specified with the listen-on clause of the
		 configuration files options statement.

     -(b|c) config_file
		 Use an alternate config_file; this argument is overridden by
		 any config_file which is specified at the end of the command
		 line.	The default value is /etc/bind/named.conf.

     -f 	 Run this process in the foreground; dont fork(2) and daemo
		 nize.	(The default is to daemonize.)

     -q 	 Trace all incoming queries if named has been compiled with
		 QRYLOG defined.

		 NOTE: This option is deprecated in favor of the queries
		 logging category of the configuration files logging state
		 ment; for more information, please refer to the configuration
		 file guide included with this distribution of BIND.

     -r 	 Turns recursion off in the server.  Answers can come only
		 from local (primary or secondary) zones.  This can be used on
		 root servers.	The default is to use recursion.

		 NOTE: This option can be overridden by and is deprecated in
		 favor of the recursion clause of the configuration files
		 options statement.

     -v 	 Report the version and exit.

     -u user_name
		 Specifies the user the server should run as after it initial
		 izes.	The value specified may be either a username or a
		 numeric user id.  If the -g flag is not specified, then the
		 group id used will be the primary group of the user specified
		 (initgroups() is called, so all of the users groups will be
		 available to the server).

     -g group_name
		 Specifies the group the server should run as after it ini
		 tializes.  The value specified may be either a groupname or a
		 numeric group id.

     -t directory
		 Specifies the directory the server should chroot() into as
		 soon as it is finished processing command line arguments.

     -w directory
		 Sets the working directory of the server.  The directory
		 clause of the configuration files options statement over
		 rides any value specified on the command line.  The default
		 working directory is the current directory (.).

     Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration file,
     for compatibility with older implementations; as noted above, this argu
     ment overrides any config_file specified by the use of the -b or -c
     flags.  If no further argument is given, then the default configuration
     file is used (/etc/bind/named.conf).

   Master File Format
     The master file consists of control information and a list of resource
     records for objects in the zone of the forms:



     domain	   is . for root, @ for the current origin, or a standard
		   domain name. If domain is a standard domain name that does
		   not end with ., the current origin is appended to the
		   domain. Domain names ending with . are unmodified.

     opt_domain    This field is used to define an origin for the data in an
		   included file.  It is equivalent to placing an $ORIGIN
		   statement before the first line of the included file.  The
		   field is optional.  Neither the opt_domain field nor
		   $ORIGIN statements in the included file modify the current
		   origin for this file.

     ttl	   A integer number that sets the default time-to-live for
		   future records without an explicit ttl.

     opt_ttl	   An optional integer number for the time-to-live field.  If
		   not set the ttl is taken from the last $TTL statement.  If
		   no $TTL statement has occurred then the SOA minimum value
		   is used and a warning is generated.

     opt_class	   The object address type; currently only one type is sup
		   ported, IN, for objects connected to the DARPA Internet.

     type	   This field contains one of the following tokens; the data
		   expected in the resource_record_data field is in parenthe

			 A	    a host address (dotted-quad IP address)

			 NS	    an authoritative name server (domain)

			 MX	    a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a
				    preference value (0..32767), with lower
				    numeric values representing higher logical

			 CNAME	    the canonical name for an alias (domain)

			 SOA	    marks the start of a zone of authority
				    (domain of originating host, domain
				    address of maintainer, a serial number and
				    the following parameters in seconds:
				    refresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL
				    (see RFC 883 and RFC 2308)).

			 NULL	    a null resource record (no format or data)

			 RP	    a Responsible Person for some domain name
				    (mailbox, TXT-referral)

			 PTR	    a domain name pointer (domain)

			 HINFO	    host information (cpu_type OS_type)

     Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be continued
     across lines between opening and closing parentheses.  Comments are
     introduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the line.

     NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here.  You should
     consult the BIND Operations Guide (BOG) for the complete list.  Some
     resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFCs but not
     yet implemented in this version of BIND.

   SOA Record Format
     Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone.  An
     example SOA record is as follows:

     @	     IN      SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
				     1989020501      ; serial
				     10800   ; refresh
				     3600    ; retry
				     3600000 ; expire
				     86400 ) ; minimum

     The SOA specifies a serial number, which should be incremented each time
     the master file is changed.  Note that the serial number can be given as
     a dotted number, but this is a very unwise thing to do since the transla
     tion to normal integers is via concatenation rather than multiplication
     and addition.  You can spell out the year, month, day of month, and 0..99
     version number and still fit inside the unsigned 32-bit size of this
     field.  (Its true that we will have to rethink this strategy in the year
     4294, but were not worried about it.)

     Secondary servers check the serial number at intervals specified by the
     refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone transfer
     will be done to load the new data.  If a master server cannot be con
     tacted when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the interval at
     which refreshes should be attempted.  If a master server cannot be con
     tacted within the interval given by the expire time, all data from the
     zone is discarded by secondary servers.  The minimum value is the cache
     time-to-live for negative answers (RFC 2308).

     The boot file directives domain and suffixes have been obsoleted by a
     more useful, resolver-based implementation of suffixing for partially-
     qualified domain names.  The prior mechanisms could fail under a number
     of situations, especially when then local nameserver did not have com
     plete information.

     The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the server
     process using the kill(1) command:

     SIGHUP    Causes server to read named.conf and reload the database.  If
	       the server is built with the FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option,
	       then SIGHUP will also cause the server to check the serial num
	       ber on all secondary zones; normally, the serial numbers are
	       only checked at the SOA-specified intervals.

     SIGINT    Dumps the current data base and cache to
	       /var/cache/bind/named_dump.db or the value of _PATH_DUMPFILE.

     SIGILL    Dumps statistics data into named.stats if the server is com
	       piled with -DSTATS.  Statistics data is appended to the file.

     SIGSYS    Dumps the profiling data in /var/tmp if the server is compiled
	       with profiling (server forks, chdirs and exits).

     SIGTERM   Saves any modified dynamic zones to the file system, and shuts
	       down the server.

     SIGUSR1   Turns on debugging; each SIGUSR1 increments debug level.
	       (SIGEMT on older systems without SIGUSR1.)

     SIGUSR2   Turns off debugging completely.	(SIGFPE on older systems
	       without SIGUSR2.)

     SIGWINCH  Toggles logging of all incoming queries via syslog(3) (requires
	       server to have been built with the QRYLOG option).

     /etc/bind/named.conf				default name server
							configuration file
     /var/run/named.pid (_PATH_PIDFILE) 		the process id
     /var/cache/bind/named_dump.db (_PATH_DUMPFILE)	dump of the name
							server database
     /var/tmp/named.run (file: _PATH_DEBUG)		debug output
     /var/tmp/named.stats (file: _PATH_STATS)		nameserver statistics

     named.conf(5), gethostbyname(3), hostname(7), kill(1), resolver(3),
     resolver(5), signal(3), RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1033, RFC
     1034, RFC 1035, RFC 1123, RFC 2308 Name Server Operations Guide for

4th Berkeley Distribution      February 1, 1996      4th Berkeley Distribution

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