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APT-GET(8)							    APT-GET(8)

       apt-get - APT package handling utility -- command-line interface

       apt-get [-hvs] [-o=config string] [-c=file] {[update] | [upgrade] |
	       [dselect-upgrade] | [install pkg...] | [remove pkg...] |
	       [source pkg...] | [build-dep pkg...] | [check] | [clean] |

       apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages, and may be
       considered the users "back-end" to other tools using the APT library.
       Several "front-end" interfaces exist, such as dselect(8), aptitude,
       synaptic, gnome-apt and wajig.

       Unless the -h, or --help option is given, one of the commands below
       must be present.

	  update is used to resynchronize the package index files from their
	  sources. The indexes of available packages are fetched from the
	  location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list. For example, when
	  using a Debian archive, this command retrieves and scans the
	  Packages.gz files, so that information about new and updated
	  packages is available. An update should always be performed before
	  an upgrade or dist-upgrade. Please be aware that the overall
	  progress meter will be incorrect as the size of the package files
	  cannot be known in advance.

	  upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all packages
	  currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
	  /etc/apt/sources.list. Packages currently installed with new
	  versions available are retrieved and upgraded; under no
	  circumstances are currently installed packages removed, or packages
	  not already installed retrieved and installed. New versions of
	  currently installed packages that cannot be upgraded without
	  changing the install status of another package will be left at their
	  current version. An update must be performed first so that apt-get
	  knows that new versions of packages are available.

	  dselect-upgrade is used in conjunction with the traditional Debian
	  packaging front-end, dselect(8).  dselect-upgrade follows the
	  changes made by dselect(8) to the Status field of available
	  packages, and performs the actions necessary to realize that state
	  (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of new

	  dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of upgrade, also
	  intelligently handles changing dependencies with new versions of
	  packages; apt-get has a "smart" conflict resolution system, and it
	  will attempt to upgrade the most important packages at the expense
	  of less important ones if necessary. The /etc/apt/sources.list file
	  contains a list of locations from which to retrieve desired package
	  files. See also apt_preferences(5) for a mechanism for overriding
	  the general settings for individual packages.

	  install is followed by one or more packages desired for
	  installation. Each package is a package name, not a fully qualified
	  filename (for instance, in a Debian GNU/Linux system, libc6 would be
	  the argument provided, not libc6_1.9.6-2.deb) All packages required
	  by the package(s) specified for installation will also be retrieved
	  and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list file is used to locate the
	  desired packages. If a hyphen is appended to the package name (with
	  no intervening space), the identified package will be removed if it
	  is installed. Similarly a plus sign can be used to designate a
	  package to install. These latter features may be used to override
	  decisions made by apt-gets conflict resolution system.

	  A specific version of a package can be selected for installation by
	  following the package name with an equals and the version of the
	  package to select. This will cause that version to be located and
	  selected for install. Alternatively a specific distribution can be
	  selected by following the package name with a slash and the version
	  of the distribution or the Archive name (stable, testing, unstable).

	  Both of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages and
	  must be used with care.

	  Finally, the apt_preferences(5) mechanism allows you to create an
	  alternative installation policy for individual packages.

	  If no package matches the given expression and the expression
	  contains one of ., ? or * then it is assumed to be a POSIX
	  regular expression, and it is applied to all package names in the
	  database. Any matches are then installed (or removed). Note that
	  matching is done by substring so lo.* matches how-lo and
	  lowest. If this is undesired, anchor the regular expression with a
	  ^ or $ character, or create a more specific regular expression.

	  remove is identical to install except that packages are removed
	  instead of installed. If a plus sign is appended to the package name
	  (with no intervening space), the identified package will be
	  installed instead of removed.

	  source causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine the
	  available packages to decide which source package to fetch. It will
	  then find and download into the current directory the newest
	  available version of that source package. Source packages are
	  tracked separately from binary packages via deb-src type lines in
	  the sources.list(5) file. This probably will mean that you will not
	  get the same source as the package you have installed or as you
	  could install. If the --compile options is specified then the
	  package will be compiled to a binary .deb using dpkg-buildpackage,
	  if --download-only is specified then the source package will not be

	  A specific source version can be retrieved by postfixing the source
	  name with an equals and then the version to fetch, similar to the
	  mechanism used for the package files. This enables exact matching of
	  the source package name and version, implicitly enabling the
	  APT::Get::Only-Source option.

	  Note that source packages are not tracked like binary packages, they
	  exist only in the current directory and are similar to downloading
	  source tar balls.

	  build-dep causes apt-get to install/remove packages in an attempt to
	  satisfy the build dependencies for a source package.

	  check is a diagnostic tool; it updates the package cache and checks
	  for broken dependencies.

	  clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It
	  removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/
	  and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. When APT is used as a
	  dselect(8) method, clean is run automatically. Those who do not use
	  dselect will likely want to run apt-get clean from time to time to
	  free up disk space.

	  Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved
	  package files. The difference is that it only removes package files
	  that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This
	  allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it
	  growing out of control. The configuration option
	  APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being
	  erased if it is set to off.

       All command line options may be set using the configuration file, the
       descriptions indicate the configuration option to set. For boolean
       options you can override the config file by using something like
       -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.

       -d, --download-only
	  Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or
	  installed. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.

       -f, --fix-broken
	  Fix; attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place.
	  This option, when used with install/remove, can omit any packages to
	  permit APT to deduce a likely solution. Any Package that are
	  specified must completely correct the problem. The option is
	  sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time; APT itself
	  does not allow broken package dependencies to exist on a system. It
	  is possible that a systems dependency structure can be so corrupt
	  as to require manual intervention (which usually means using
	  dselect(8) or dpkg --remove to eliminate some of the offending
	  packages). Use of this option together with -m may produce an error
	  in some situations. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Broken.

       -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing
	  Ignore missing packages; If packages cannot be retrieved or fail the
	  integrity check after retrieval (corrupted package files), hold back
	  those packages and handle the result. Use of this option together
	  with -f may produce an error in some situations. If a package is
	  selected for installation (particularly if it is mentioned on the
	  command line) and it could not be downloaded then it will be
	  silently held back. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Missing.

	  Disables downloading of packages. This is best used with
	  --ignore-missing to force APT to use only the .debs it has already
	  downloaded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.

       -q, --quiet
	  Quiet; produces output suitable for logging, omitting progress
	  indicators. More qs will produce more quiet up to a maximum of 2.
	  You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the
	  configuration file. Note that quiet level 2 implies -y, you should
	  never use -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d, --print-uris
	  or -s as APT may decided to do something you did not expect.
	  Configuration Item: quiet.

       -s, --simulate, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon, --no-act
	  No action; perform a simulation of events that would occur but do
	  not actually change the system. Configuration Item:

	  Simulate prints out a series of lines each one representing a dpkg
	  operation, Configure (Conf), Remove (Remv), Unpack (Inst). Square
	  brackets indicate broken packages with and empty set of square
	  brackets meaning breaks that are of no consequence (rare).

       -y, --yes, --assume-yes
	  Automatic yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts and
	  run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such as changing
	  a held package, trying to install a unauthenticated package or
	  removing an essential package occurs then apt-get will abort.
	  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-Yes.

       -u, --show-upgraded
	  Show upgraded packages; Print out a list of all packages that are to
	  be upgraded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.

       -V, --verbose-versions
	  Show full versions for upgraded and installed packages.
	  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Versions.

       -b, --compile, --build
	  Compile source packages after downloading them. Configuration Item:

	  Ignore package Holds; This causes apt-get to ignore a hold placed on
	  a package. This may be useful in conjunction with dist-upgrade to
	  override a large number of undesired holds. Configuration Item:

	  Do not upgrade packages; When used in conjunction with install,
	  no-upgrade will prevent packages on the command line from being
	  upgraded if they are already installed. Configuration Item:

	  Force yes; This is a dangerous option that will cause apt to
	  continue without prompting if it is doing something potentially
	  harmful. It should not be used except in very special situations.
	  Using force-yes can potentially destroy your system! Configuration
	  Item: APT::Get::force-yes.

	  Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed.
	  Each URI will have the path, the destination file name, the size and
	  the expected md5 hash. Note that the file name to write to will not
	  always match the file name on the remote site! This also works with
	  the source and update commands. When used with the update command
	  the MD5 and size are not included, and it is up to the user to
	  decompress any compressed files. Configuration Item:

	  Use purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed. An
	  asterisk ("*") will be displayed next to packages which are
	  scheduled to be purged. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.

	  Re-Install packages that are already installed and at the newest
	  version. Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.

	  This option defaults to on, use --no-list-cleanup to turn it off.
	  When on apt-get will automatically manage the contents of
	  /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that obsolete files are erased. The
	  only reason to turn it off is if you frequently change your source
	  list. Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.

       -t, --target-release, --default-release
	  This option controls the default input to the policy engine, it
	  creates a default pin at priority 990 using the specified release
	  string. The preferences file may further override this setting. In
	  short, this option lets you have simple control over which
	  distribution packages will be retrieved from. Some common examples
	  might be -t 2.1* or -t unstable. Configuration Item:
	  APT::Default-Release; see also the apt_preferences(5) manual page.

	  Only perform operations that are trivial. Logically this can be
	  considered related to --assume-yes, where --assume-yes will answer
	  yes to any prompt, --trivial-only will answer no. Configuration
	  Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.

	  If any packages are to be removed apt-get immediately aborts without
	  prompting. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.

	  Only has meaning for the source and build-dep commands. Indicates
	  that the given source names are not to be mapped through the binary
	  table. This means that if this option is specified, these commands
	  will only accept source package names as arguments, rather than
	  accepting binary package names and looking up the corresponding
	  source package. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Source.

       --diff-only, --tar-only
	  Download only the diff or tar file of a source archive.
	  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Diff-Only and APT::Get::Tar-Only.

	  Only process architecture-dependent build-dependencies.
	  Configuration Item: APT::Get::Arch-Only.

	  Ignore if packages cant be authenticated and dont prompt about it.
	  This is usefull for tools like pbuilder. Configuration Item:

       -h, --help
	  Show a short usage summary.

       -v, --version
	  Show the program version.

       -c, --config-file
	  Configuration File; Specify a configuration file to use. The program
	  will read the default configuration file and then this configuration
	  file. See apt.conf(5) for syntax information.

       -o, --option
	  Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitary configuration
	  option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.

	  Locations to fetch packages from. Configuration Item:

	  APT configuration file. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.

	  APT configuration file fragments Configuration Item:

	  Version preferences file. This is where you would specify "pinning",
	  i.e. a preference to get certain packages from a separate source or
	  from a different version of a distribution. Configuration Item:

	  Storage area for retrieved package files. Configuration Item:

	  Storage area for package files in transit. Configuration Item:
	  Dir::Cache::Archives (implicit partial).

	  Storage area for state information for each package resource
	  specified in sources.list(5) Configuration Item: Dir::State::Lists.

	  Storage area for state information in transit. Configuration Item:
	  Dir::State::Lists (implicit partial).

       apt-cache(8), apt-cdrom(8), dpkg(8), dselect(8), sources.list(5),
       apt.conf(5), apt-config(8), apt-secure(8), The APT Users guide in
       /usr/share/doc/apt-doc/, apt_preferences(5), the APT Howto.

       apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.

       [1]APT bug page. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see
       /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.

       Jason Gunthorpe

       APT team

       1. APT bug page

Linux			       29 February 2004 		    APT-GET(8)

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