Quick ?s
Cheat Sheets
Man Pages
The Lynx
MAKEDEV(8)		      Make Linux Devices		    MAKEDEV(8)

       MAKEDEV - create devices

       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ update ]
       cd  /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ generic ] [ local ] [ group-keyword
       ... device ... ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ] device ...

       MAKEDEV is a script that will create the devices in /dev used to inter
       face with drivers in the kernel.

       Note  that  programs  giving the error ENOENT: No such file or direc
       tory  normally  means  that  the  device  file  is  missing,  whereas
       ENODEV:	No such device normally means the kernel does not have the
       driver configured or loaded.

       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions  that
	      would be performed.

       -d     Delete  the  devices.   The main use for this flag is by MAKEDEV

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.   This
	      is the same output as produced by -n.

       Since  there is currently no standardisation in what names are used for
       system users and groups, it is possible that you  may  need  to	modify
       MAKEDEV to reflect your sites settings.	Near the top of the file is a
       mapping from device type to user, group and permissions (e.g.  all  CD-
       ROM  devices  are set from the $cdrom variable).  If you wish to change
       the defaults, this is the section to edit.

       update This only works on kernels which have  /proc/interrupts  (intro
	      duced  during  1.1.x).  This file is scanned to see what devices
	      are currently configured into the kernel, and this  is  compared
	      with  the  previous  settings stored in the file called DEVICES.
	      Devices which are new since then or have a different major  num
	      ber  are	created,  and those which are no longer configured are

	      Create a generic subset of devices.  This subset consists of the
	      standard	devices,  plus floppy drives, various hard drives, CD-
	      ROM drives,  pseudo-terminals,  console  devices,  basic	serial
	      devices,	busmice,  audio  devices,  video framebuffers, printer
	      ports, and some specialized devices. The generic	subset	varies
	      somewhat	according to architecture; see the /dev/MAKEDEV script
	      itself for details.

       local  This simply runs MAKEDEV.local.  This is a script that can  cre
	      ate any local devices.

       MAKEDEV	creates  groups of devices when passed keywords for the group.
       Each listing below shows the MAKEDEV keyword and then lists the devices
       which will be created. Many devices can also be specified individually.

       std    Creates this group of standard devices: mem for access to physi
	      cal  memory,  kmem for access to kernel virtual memory, null the
	      null device (infinite sink), port for access to I/O ports,  zero
	      the  null  byte  source  (infinite  source),  core, a symlink to
	      /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging), full	which  always  returns
	      ENOSPACE	on  write,  random and urandom random byte generators,
	      and tty to access the controlling tty of a process. The loopback
	      disk  devices  loop0  through  loop7 are also created in the std
	      group.  These allow you to use a regular file as a block device.
	      A  filesystem image can be mounted, and used as though it were a
	      filesystem on a partition or other block device.	loop may  also
	      be  used	as  a  separate  keyword to create the 8 loop devices.
	      Finally, the ram group of memory devices is also created by  the
	      std keyword (see below).

       ram    This  is	the  keyword  used  to	generate  the  ramdisk devices
	      ram{0..16} and the ram symlink. This group does not include ini

       initrd Ramdisk  which has been pre-initialized by a bootloader.	initrd
	      is not created  in  the  ram  group;  it	must  be  specifically
	      included in the command line if you want it to be created.

       cpu or microcode
	      Creates  the  CPU microcode update interface in the cpu/ folder,
	      with devices microcode, and subfolders  {0..3}  each  containing
	      devices msr and cpuid.

       rom    Creates  the  rom{0..7}  rrom{0..7} flaxh{0..7} and rflash{0..7}
	      flash memory card devices.  rrom and rflash  devices  are  read-

	      This  keyword  creates virtual consoles; tty{0..63} devices, the
	      corresponding vcs and vcsa devices which are  used  to  generate
	      screen-dumps,  and  the  console	device itself plus appropriate
	      symlinks.  To create the console device alone, use  consoleonly.
	      The  device  tty0  is  the currently active virtual console. The
	      console device serves the same function.

       pty    This keyword creates the Pseudo-TTY masters  pty{a..e,p..z}  and
	      corresponding  tty{a..e,p..z}  devices,  along  with ptmx.  Each
	      possible argument will create a bank  of	16  master  and  slave
	      pairs.  The master pseudo-terminals are pty{p..s}{0..9a..f}, and
	      the slaves are tty{p..s}{0..9a..f}.

	      Standard serial ports. There is no group keyword, you must spec
	      ify these individually. However ttyS{0..3} are created under the
	      generic option for most architectures.

       cyclades or ttyC
	      Creates Cyclades ports ttyC{0..31}.

       digi or ttyD
	      Creates Digiboard serial card ports ttyD{0..15}.

       stallion or ttyE
	      Creates Stallion devices ttyE{0..255} and staliomem{0..3}.

       computone or ttyF
	      Creates CompuTone serial card  ports  ttyH{0..255}  and  special
	      devices ip2ipl{0,4,8,12} and ip2stat{1,5,9,13}.

       chase or ttyH
	      Creates Chase serial card ports ttyH{0..15}.

       isdnmodem or ttyI
	      Creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..63}.

	      Also creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..7}.

	      Creates  ISDN  BRI  driver  devices  isdn{0..63} isdnctrl{0..63}
	      ippp{0..63} and isdninfo.

	      Also creates ISDN BRI driver devices  isdn{0..7}	isdnctrl{0..7}
	      ippp{0..7} and isdninfo.	The isdn-ippp keyword can be used sep
	      arately to create only the ippp{0..7} devices.

       ppp    Creates a device independent PPP interface.

       dcbri  Creates Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card devices  dcbri{0..3}.

       riscom or ttyL
	      Creates Riscom serial card ports ttyL{0..15}.

       PAM or ttyM
	      Creates PAM multimodem (or ISI serial card) ports ttyM{0..15}.

       ESP or ttyP
	      Creates ESP ports ttyP{0..4}.

       rocketport or ttyR
	      Creates Rocketport devices ttyR{0..63}.

       ttyV   Creates Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller ports ttyV{0..15}.

       specialixIO8 or ttyW
	      Creates Specialix IO8+ ports ttyW{0..15}.

       specialix or ttyX
	      Creates Specialix ports ttyX{0..15}.

       i2c    Creates i2c{0..7} devices for the I2C bus interface.

       tlk    Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6} ports tlk{0..3}.

       lp     Creates  the  standard parallel ports lp0, lp1, and lp2 normally
	      used for printers.  These correspond to ports  at  0x3bc,  0x378
	      and  0x278.  Hence, on some machines, the first printer port may
	      actually be lp1.

       par    Alternative to lp.  The same ports are created,  but  are  named
	      par{0..2} instead of lp{0..2}.

	      Creates raw parallel ports parport0, parport1, and parport2.

       slm    Creates  the  Atari  SLM	ACSI  laser  printer (68k/Atari) ports

       pg     Parallel port generic ATAPI interface (devices pg{0..3}.

       paride Parallel port IDE disk devices pd{a..d} with  15	partitions  on
	      each. Also creates pcd{0..3} and pf{0..3}.

       netlink or tap
	      Creates  NetLink	devices  route	skip  fwmonitor and tap{0..15}
	      Ethertap devices.  The tapx virtual ethernet device was designed
	      as  low  level  kernel  support for Ethernet tunneling. Userland
	      application can write Ethernet frame to /dev/tapX and the kernel
	      will  receive  this  frame from tapX interface.  Every frame the
	      kernel writes to a tapX interface can  be  read  by  a  userland
	      application from the corresponding /dev/tapX device.

       enskip ENskip kernel encryption package.

       qng    ComScire Quantum Noise Generator.

       ipsec  The Free S/WAN implementation of IPSEC.

       adb    On powerpc, creates adb for the Apple Data Bus and adbmouse.  On
	      m68k, adb creates the ACSI disk device adb and  partitions  adb1
	      through adb15.

	      Creates the scc{0..7} and bc{0..3} device groups.

       comx   Creates COMX devices comx{0..4}.

       irda   Creates  IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation) ircomm0
	      ircomm1 irlpt0 and irlpt1.

       comedi Control and Measurement devices comedi{0..3}.

	      This keyword creates the following devices: logibm (Logitech bus
	      mouse), psaux (PS/2-style mouse), inportbm (Microsoft Inport bus
	      mouse) and atibm (ATI XL bus mouse) and jbm (J-mouse).

	      Creates mouse devices  for  the  m68k  architecture,  including:
	      amigamouse, amigamouse1, atarimouse and adbmouse.

       input  On  powerpc,  this keyword creates the input folder which groups
	      input devices mice, mouse{0..3}, event{0..3}, and js{0..3} (joy
	      stick), and creates these devices inside.

       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       djs    Digital joystick. Creates djs0 and djs1.

       usb    USB  is a general purpose I/O bus which can serve many purposes.
	      The usb keyword creates a usb folder, and devices in the folder:
	      lp{0..15}   (printer),   mouse{0..15}   (USB   connected	mice),
	      ez{0..15}  (firmware  loaders)  scanner{0..15}  (scanner	inter
	      faces),  ttyACM{0..15}  and ttyUSB{0..15} (dialout devices), and
	      rio500 the Diamond Rio 500 device.

	      Floppy disk devices.  The device fdx is the device which autode
	      tects  the  format,  and the additional devices are fixed format
	      (whose size is indicated in the name).  The  other  devices  are
	      named  as fdx{dqhu}n.  The single letter (d, q, hor u) signifies
	      the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d), 5.25" Quad  Density
	      (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5" (any model, u). The number n
	      represents the capacity of that format in K.  Thus the  standard
	      formats are fdxd360, fdxh1200, fdx720, fdx1440, and fdx2880.

	      For more information see Alain Knaffs fdutils package.

	      Devices  fd0*  through  fd3*  are floppy disks on the first con
	      troller, and devices fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks  on  the
	      second controller.

	      Creates  just the autodetecting floppy device specified, without
	      the fixed format devices.

	      AT (ide) hard disks.  The device	hdx  provides  access  to  the
	      whole disk, with the partitions being hdx{1..63}.  For i386, the
	      four primary partitions are hdx1 through hdx4, with the  logical
	      partitions  being  numbered  from hdx5 though hdx20.  (A primary
	      partition can be made into an extended partition, which can hold
	      4 logical partitions). Other architectures may not differentiate
	      partition types.	By default, devices for 20 logical  partitions
	      are made. The kernel supports up to 63 partitions per device.

	      Drives hda and hdb are the two on the primary controller hdc and
	      hdd are the two  drives  on  the	secondary  controller.	 These
	      devices  can  also  be  used  to	access	IDE CDROMs. Additional
	      devices hd{e..l} can be created.

	      XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same  as  IDE	disks,	except
	      only 8 partitions are created.

	      SCSI  hard  disks.  The partitions are similar to the IDE disks,
	      but there is a limit  of	11  logical  partitions  sdx5  through
	      sdx15,  to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks on a system (addresses
	      0 through 7).

	      and sd{a..d}{a..z} The kernel (and MAKEDEV) can handle up to 128
	      SCSI  disks  (up to sddx).  15 partition devices are created for

       eda edb
	      MCA ESDI hard disk. Partitions are handled the same as hd.

	      Direct Access Storage Devices for the  s390  architecture.  Cur
	      rently  only  one  device  partition  is	created  (for example,

	      ACSI disk (68k/Atari). 15 partitions are created for each.

	      Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller. For this device, an rd	direc
	      tory  is	created. 32 logical devices cxd{0..31} are created for
	      each unit x specified, each with 7 partitions cxd{0..31}p{1..7}.
	      The dac960 keyword will create all 7 units at once.

       dpti   Adaptec  I2O RAID and DPT SmartRAID V I2O controllers. Creates 7
	      devices for handling up to 7 controllers.

	      Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt. For this device, an
	      ataraid  directory  is  created.	 dx is created for each unit x
	      specified, and 15 partitions dxp{1..15}.	 The  ataraid  keyword
	      will create all 7 units at once.

	      I2O  based  harddisk drives. Device nodes are located in the i2o
	      directory. The filename is followed by a number  that  specifies
	      the  partition on each disk. The numbers are handled the same as

	      Compaq Intelligent Drive Array. For this device, an  ida	direc
	      tory  is	created. 16 logical devices cxd{0..15} are created for
	      each   unit   x	specified,    each    with    15    partitions
	      cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The ida keyword will create the first three

	      Compaq Next Generation Drive Array. For  this  device,  a  cciss
	      directory  is created. 16 logical devices cxd{0..15} are created
	      for  each  unit	x   specified,	 each	with   15   partitions
	      cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.   The  cciss	keyword  will create the first
	      three units.

       md     Creates Metadisk (RAID) disk array with 16 devices.

	      SCSI tape devices.  This creates the rewinding tape  device  stx
	      and  the	non-rewinding  tape  device  nstx, for each of modes 0
	      through 3.

       qic    QIC-11, -24, -120, and -150  tapes.   The  devices  created  are
	      ntpqic11	tpqic11  ntpqic24 tpqic24 ntpqic120 tpqic120 ntpqic150
	      and tpqic150 tape devices, along with rmt8, rmt16,  tape-d,  and

	      Floppy  driver  tapes  (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods of access
	      depending on the floppy tape drive.  For each of access  methods
	      0,  1,  2  and 3, the devices qftx zqftx and rawqftx (rewinding)
	      and nqftx nzqftx nrawqdtx (non-rewinding) are created.  For com
	      patibility,  devices  ftape  and nftape are symlinks to qft0 and
	      nqft0 respectively.

       ht0    Creates IDE tape devices ht0 and nht0.

	      Creates parallel port ATAPI tape devices pt{0..3} and npt{0..3}.

       sr or scd or scd-all
	      Creates  scd{0..16}  SCSI  CD players and sr{0..16} symlinks for
	      these devices.  cdrom is a symlink which can be created  by  the
	      user to the active CD device.  It is not created by MAKEDEV.

	      Provides packet writing devices pktcdvd{0..3} for CD/DVD.

	      Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices

       sonycd Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM

       mcd    Mitsumi CD-ROM

       mcdx   Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM

       lmscd  Philips  LMS  CM-205  CD-ROM.  The newer name for this device is
	      cm205, but MAKEDEV creates only lmscd at this time.

	      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM

       bpcd   MicroSolutions BackPack parallel port  CD-ROM  (Obsolete	-  use

	      Matsushita  (Panasonic/SoundBlaster)  CD-ROM.  Units  {0..3} are
	      created with the keyword sbpcd.

       aztcd  Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM

       gscd   GoldStar CD-ROM

       optcd  Optics Storage CD-ROM

       sjcd   Sanyo CD-ROM

       hitcd  Hitachi CD-ROM

	      Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

	      Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.

       audio  This creates the audio devices used by the sound driver.	 These
	      include  mixer  mixer{1..3}  (Mixer  controls), sequencer (Audio
	      sequencer), dsp dsp{1..3} (Digital audio), sndstat  (Sound  card
	      status  information),  audioctl (SPARC audio control device) and
	      audio audio{1..3} (Sun-compatible digital audio).  MIDI  devices
	      are midi00 through midi03, midi{0..3}, rmidi{0..3}, smpte{0..3}.
	      In addition, devices mpu401data and mpu401stat are created.

	      Devices for the PC Speaker sound	driver.   These  are  pcmixer,
	      pxsp, and pcaudio.

       fb     Creates	 framebuffer	devices   fb{0..7},   fb{0..7}current,

	      If  the  framebuffer  number  x  is   specifed,	a   group   of
	      fbxuser{0..7} devices is created.

       3dfx   is the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device.

	      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table

       video video4linux v4l radio
	      Each  of	these  keywords  produces  the same result: Video cap
	      ture/overlay devices video{0..63}, Radio	devices  radio{0..63},
	      Teletext	 devices  vtx{0..31},  and  Vertical  blank  interrupt
	      devices vbi{0..31}.  In addition, the  winradio0	and  winradio1
	      devices,	and  vtx and vttuner devices, and symlinks radio video
	      and vbi are created.

       srnd   miroMEDIA Surround board devices srnd0 and srnd1.

       fgrab  Matrox Meteor frame grabber {2.6}. Creates mmetfgrab, wvisfgrab,
	      iscc0, iscc1, isccctl0, isccctl1, dcxx0, and dcxx1.

       sg or sg-all
	      Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created are sg0 through sg16.
	      These allow arbitary commands to be sent to any SCSI device,  to
	      query  information  or  control  SCSI devices that are not disk,
	      tape or CDROM (for example, scanner or writeable CDROM).

       fd     To allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file  descrip
	      tor  x,  use  /dev/fd/x  as  the	file  name.  This also creates
	      /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout, and /dev/stderr.  (Note, these are just
	      symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices  socksys spx (and symlinks nfsd XOR) needed by the IBCS2

       apm    apm_bios Advanced Power Management BIOS device.

       dcf    Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.

	      Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.

       xfs or arla
	      Arla XFS network file system.

       capi   CAPI 2.0 interface ports capi20{01..20}.

       ubd    User-mode block devices ubd{0..255}.

	      Network block devices.

       raw    Creates the raw block device interface raw  device,  the	rawctl
	      symlink, and raw{1..8}.

	      IEEE 1394 (Firewire).

       misc   This keyword creates all the following devices. You may find the
	      device explanations in other categories in this man  page,  many
	      under OTHER DEVICES below.  logibm, psaux, inportbm, atibm, jbm,
	      amigamouse, atarimouse, sunmouse, amigamouse1, smouse, pc110pad,
	      adbmouse,  beep,	modreq, watchdog, temperature, hwtrap, exttrp,
	      apm_bios, rtc, openprom, relay8, relay16, msr,  pciconf,	nvram,
	      hfmodem, led, mergemem, pmu.

       Network Devices
	      Linux  used  to  have  devices  in  /dev for controlling network
	      devices, but that is no longer the case.	To  see  what  network
	      devices are known by the kernel, look at /proc/net/dev.

       Many of these devices are architecture-specific.

       scc    Z8530 HDLC driver (HAM radio)

       bc     Baycom radio modem (HAM radio)

       cfs0 or cfs or coda
	      Coda network file system

	      Sun mouse

       smouse Simple serial mouse driver

	      IBM PC-110 digitizer pad

	      Vr41xx embedded touch panel

	      Connectix Virtual PC Mouse

       beep   Fancy beep device

       modreq Kernel module load request {2.6}

	      Watchdog timer port

	      Machine internal temperature

       hwtrap Hardware fault trap

       exttrp External device trap

       rtc    Real Time Clock

       efirtc Real Time Clock

	      SPARC OpenBoot PROM

       relay8 Berkshire Products Octal relay card

	      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card

       msr    x86 model-specific registers {2.6}

	      PCI configuration space

       nvram  Non-volatile configuration RAM

	      Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}

	      Linux/SGI graphics device

       opengl Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe

       gfx    Linux/SGI graphics effects device

       lcd    Front panel LCD display

       led    Front panel LEDs

	      Memory merge device

       pmu    Macintosh PowerBook power manager

       isictl MultiTech ISICom serial control

       ac     Applicom Intl Profibus card

	      Netwinder external button

	      Netwinder debug interface

	      Netwinder flash memory

	      User-space DMA access

       smbus  System Management Bus

       lik    Logitech Internet Keyboard

       ipmo   Intel Intelligent Platform Management

       vmmon  VMWare virtual machine monitor

       tcldrv Technology Concepts serial control

	      Specialix serial control

	      Specialix RIO serial control

       smapi or thinkpad
	      IBM Thinkpad smapi device, and a symlink thinkpad.

       srripc QNX4 API IPC manager

	      Semaphore clone device

       ipmi or ipmikcs
	      Intelligent Platform Management

       uctrl  SPARCbook 3 microcontroller

       gtrsc  Gorgy Timing radio clock

       cbm    Serial CBM bus

	      JavaStation OS flash SIMM

       xsvc   High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service

	      Vr41xx button input device

	      Toshiba laptop SMM support

	      Performance-monitoring counters

	      Intel i8x0 random number generator

	      Atomic shapshot of process state data

       irnet  IrNET device

	      SMBus BIOS

	      User space serial port control

       crash  Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility

	      NAS xbus LCD/buttons access

       d7s    SPARC 7-segment display

       zkshim Zero-Knowledge network shim control

       sexec  Signed executable interface

       kchuid Inter-process chuid control

       mptctl Message passing technology (MPT) control

	      Transmeta GULP-B buttons

	      Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller

	      Compaq Remote InsightDriver

	      Elographics touchscreen E271-2201

	      Fujitsu/Siemens application panel

	      I2O configuration manager

	      IMPI coprocessor block transfer

	      IMPI coprocessor stream interface

	      Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse

	      Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard

	      MWave modem firmware upload

	      Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver

	      Montavista PICMG high availability

	      TAP/TUN network device

	      National Instruments Motion

	      :CueCat barcode scanner

	      UCB 1x00 touchscreen

	      MK712 touchscreen

	      EM8300 DVD decoder control

	      EM8300 DVD decoder video

	      EM8300 DVD decoder audio

	      EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture

	      Watchdog devices 0 through 3

       Linux	Allocated    Devices,	 maintained    by    H. Peter	Anvin,
       , and devices.txt in the Linux kernel source.

       Nick Holloway, rewritten and updated by Chris Tillman

Linux				  May 17 2002			    MAKEDEV(8)

Yals.net is © 1999-2009 Crescendo Communications
Sharing tech info on the web for more than a decade!
This page was generated Thu Apr 30 17:05:31 2009