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STANDARDS(7)		   Linux Programmers Manual		 STANDARDS(7)

       standards - C and UNIX Standards

       The  CONFORMING TO section that appears in many manual pages identifies
       various standards to which the documented interface conforms.  The fol
       lowing list briefly describes these standards.

       V7     Version 7, the ancestral UNIX from Bell Labs.

       4.2BSD This is an implementation standard defined by the 4.2 release of
	      the Berkeley Software Distribution, released by  the  University
	      of  California at Berkeley.  This was the first Berkeley release
	      that contained a TCP/IP stack and the sockets API.   4.2BSD  was
	      released in 1983.

	      Earlier  major  BSD  releases included 3BSD (1980), 4BSD (1980),
	      and 4.1BSD (1981).

       4.3BSD The successor to 4.2BSD, released in 1986.

       4.4BSD The successor to 4.3BSD, released in 1993.  This	was  the  last
	      major Berkeley release.

       System V
	      This  is	an implementation standard defined by AT&Ts milestone
	      1983 release of its commercial System  V	(five)	release.   The
	      previous major AT&T release was System III, released in 1981.

       System V release 2 (SVr2)
	      This  was the next System V release, made in 1985.  The SVr2 was
	      formally described in the System V Interface Definition  version
	      1 (SVID 1) published in 1985.

       System V release 3 (SVr3)
	      This  was the successor to SVr2, released in 1986.  This release
	      was formally described in the System V Interface Definition ver
	      sion 2 (SVID 2).

       System V release 4 (SVr4)
	      This  was the successor to SVr3, released in 1989.  This version
	      of System V is described in the "Programmers Reference  Manual:
	      Operating  System  API  (Intel processors)" (Prentice-Hall 1992,
	      ISBN 0-13-951294-2) This release was formally described  in  the
	      System V Interface Definition version 3 (SVID 3), and is consid
	      ered the definitive System V release.

       SVID 4 System V Interface Definition version 4, issued in 1995.	Avail
	      able online at http://www.sco.com/developers/devspecs/ .

       C89    This was the first C language standard, ratified by ANSI (Ameri
	      can National Standards Institute) in 1989 (X3.159-1989).	 Some
	      times  this  is  known  as ANSI C, but since C99 is also an ANSI
	      standard, this term is ambiguous.  This standard was also  rati
	      fied  by	ISO  (International  Standards	Organization)  in 1990
	      (ISO/IEC 9899:1990), and is thus occasionally referred to as ISO

       C99    This  revision of the C language standard was ratified by ISO in
	      1999 (ISO/IEC 9899:1999).  Available online at  http://www.open-

	      "Portable  Operating  System  Interface  for  Computing Environ
	      ments".  IEEE 1003.1-1990  part  1,  ratified  by  ISO  in  1990
	      (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990).  Further information can be found in Don
	      ald Lewines "POSIX Programmers Guide" (OReilly &	Associates,
	      Inc., 1991, ISBN 0-937175-73-0).	The term "POSIX" was coined by
	      Richard Stallman.

	      IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, describing commands and  utilities,  rati
	      fied by ISO in 1993 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993).

       POSIX.1b (formerly known as POSIX.4)
	      IEEE   Std  1003.1b-1993	describing  real-time  facilities  for
	      portable operating systems, ratified by  ISO  in	1996  (ISO/IEC
	      9945-1:1996).   For  further information, see "POSIX.4: Program
	      ming for the real world" by Bill O. Gallmeister (OReilly &  As
	      sociates, Inc. ISBN 1-56592-074-0).

	      IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 describing the POSIX threads interfaces.

	      IEEE  Std  1003.1c-1999  describing  additional real-time exten

	      IEEE Std	1003.1g-2000  describing  networking  APIs  (including

	      IEEE  Std 1003.1j-2000 describing advanced real-time extensions.

	      A 1996 revision  of  POSIX.1  which  incorporated  POSIX.1b  and

       XPG3   Released	in 1989, this was the first significant release of the
	      X/Open Portability Guide, produced  by  the  X/Open  Company,  a
	      multi-vendor  consortium.   This multi-volume guide was based on
	      the POSIX standards.

       XPG4   A revision of the X/Open Portability Guide, released in 1992.

       XPG4v2 A 1994 revision of XPG4.	This is also referred to as Spec 1170,
	      where  1170 referred to the number of interfaces defined by this

       SUS (SUSv1)
	      Single UNIX Specification.  This was a repackaging of XPG4v2 and
	      other  X/Open standards (X/Open Curses Issue 4 version 2, X/Open
	      Networking Service (XNS) Issue 4).  Systems conforming  to  this
	      standard can be branded UNIX 95.

       SUSv2  Single UNIX Specification version 2.  Sometimes also referred to
	      as XPG5.	This standard appeared in 1997.  Systems conforming to
	      this standard can be branded UNIX 98.  See also http://www.UNIX-
	      systems.org/version2/ .)

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
	      This was a 2001  revision  and  consolidation  of  the  POSIX.1,
	      POSIX.2,	and  SUS  standards  into a single document, conducted
	      under  the  auspices  of	the  Austin  group   (http://www.open
	      group.org/austin/  .)   The  standard  is  available  online  at
	      http://www.unix-systems.org/version3/ , and the interfaces  that
	      it  describes  are  also	available  in  the  Linux manual pages
	      package under sections 1p and 3p (e.g., "man 3p open").

	      The standard defines two levels of  conformance:	POSIX  confor
	      mance,  which is a baseline set of interfaces required of a con
	      forming system; and XSI Conformance, which additionally mandates
	      a  set  of  interfaces  (the  "XSI  extension")  which  are only
	      optional for POSIX conformance.  XSI-conformant systems  can  be
	      branded  UNIX  03.  (XSI conformance constitutes the Single UNIX
	      Specification version 3 (SUSv3).)

	      The POSIX.1-2001 document is broken into four parts:

	      XBD: Definitions, terms and  concepts,  header  file  specifica

	      XSH: Specifications of functions (i.e., system calls and library
	      functions in actual implementations).

	      XCU: Specifications of commands and utilities  (i.e.,  the  area
	      formerly described by POSIX.2).

	      XRAT: Informative text on the other parts of the standard.

	      POSIX.1-2001  is	aligned  with  C99, so that all of the library
	      functions  standardized  in  C99	are   also   standardized   in

	      Two  Technical  Corrigenda (minor fixes and improvements) of the
	      original 2001 standard have occurred: TC1 in 2003  (referred  to
	      as POSIX.1-2003), and TC2 in 2004 (referred to as POSIX.1-2004).

       POSIX.1-200x, SUSv4
	      Work  is	currently  in  progress  on  the  next	 revision   of
	      POSIX.1/SUS.   The  balloting  on the revision is expected to be
	      completed in 2008, so that the revision is likely  to  be  named

	      The  changes  in	this  revision	are not as large as those that
	      occurred for POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3, but a number of new  interfaces
	      are  added  and  various	details of existing specifications are
	      modified.   Many	of  the  interfaces  that  were  optional   in
	      POSIX.1-2001  become mandatory in the next revision of the stan

	      The revised standard is broken  into  the  same  four  parts  as
	      POSIX.1-2001, and again there are two levels of conformance: the
	      baseline POSIX Conformance, and XSI Conformance, which  mandates
	      an  additional set of interfaces beyond those in the base speci

	      Further information can be found on the Austin group  web  site,
	      http://www.opengroup.org/austin/ .

       feature_test_macros(7), posixoptions(7)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.05 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2007-11-15			  STANDARDS(7)

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