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       snmpd.examples - example configuration for the Net-SNMP agent

       The snmpd.conf(5) man page defines the syntax and behaviour of the var
       ious configuration directives that can be used to control the operation
       of the Net-SNMP agent, and the management information it provides.

       This  companion	man  page  illustrates	these directives, showing some
       practical examples of how they might be used.

   Listening addresses
       The default agent behaviour (listing on the standard SNMP UDP  port  on
       all interfaces) is equivalent to the directive:
	      agentaddress udp:161
       or simply
	      agentaddress 161
       The  agent  can be configured to only accept requests sent to the local
       loopback interface (again listening on the SNMP UDP port), using:
	      agentaddress localhost:161     # (udp implicit)
	      agentaddress	 # (udp and standard port implicit)
       It can be configured to accept both UDP and  TCP  requests  (over  both
       IPv4 and IPv6), using:
	      agentaddress udp:161,tcp:161,udp6:161,tcp6:161
       Other combinations are also valid.

   Run-time privileges
       The agent can be configured to relinquish any privileged access once it
       has opened the initial listening ports.	Given a suitable "snmp"  group
       (defined in /etc/group), this could be done using the directives:
	      agentuser  nobody
	      agentgroup snmp
       A similar effect could be achieved using numeric UID and/or GID values:
	      agentuser  #10
	      agentgroup #10

   SNMPv3 Configuration
       Rather than being generated pseudo-randomly,  the  engine  ID  for  the
       agent  could  be calculated based on the MAC address of the second net
       work interface (eth1), using the directives:
	      engineIDType 3 engineIDNic  eth1
       or it could be calculated from the (first) IP address, using:
	      engineIDType 1
       or it could be specified explicitly, using:
	      engineID "XXX - WHAT FORMAT"

   SNMPv3 Users
       The following directives will create three users, all using exactly the
       same authentication and encryption settings:
	      createUser me	MD5 "single pass phrase"
	      createUser myself MD5 "single pass phrase" DES
	      createUser andI	MD5 "single pass phrase" DES "single pass phrase"
       Note  that this defines three distinct users, who could be granted dif
       ferent levels of access.  Changing the passphrase for any one of  these
       would not affect the other two.

       Separate  pass  phrases can be specified for authentication and encryp
	      createUser onering SHA "to rule them all" AES "to bind them"
       Remember that these createUser directives  should  be  defined  in  the
       /var/lib/snmp/snmpd.conf file, rather than the usual location.

   Traditional Access Control
       The  SNMPv3  users  defined above can be granted access to the full MIB
       tree using the directives:
	      rouser me
	      rwuser onering
       Or selective access to individual subtrees using:
	      rouser myself   .
	      rwuser andI     system

       Note that a combination repeating the same user, such as:
	      rouser onering
	      rwuser onering
       should not be used. This would configure the user  onering  with  read-
       only  access  (and ignore the rwuser entry altogether).	The same holds
       for the community-based directives.

       The directives:
	      rocommunity public
	      rwcommunity private
       would define the commonly-expected read and write community strings for
       SNMPv1  and  SNMPv2c  requests.	 This  behaviour  is not configured by
       default, and would need to be set up explicitly.

	      Note:  It would also be a very good idea to  change  private  to
		     something a little less predictable!

       A  slightly  less vulnerable configuration might restrict what informa
       tion could be retrieved:
	      rocommunity public   default system
       or the management systems that settings could be manipulated from:
	      rwcommunity private
       or a combination of the two.

   VACM Configuration
       This last pair of settings are equivalent to the full VACM definitions:
	      # 	sec.name  source	community
	      com2sec	public	  default	public
	      com2sec	mynet private
	      com2sec6	mynet	  fec0::/64	private

	      # 		 sec.model  sec.name
	      group  worldGroup  v1	    public
	      group  worldGroup  v2c	    public
	      group  myGroup	 v1	    mynet
	      group  myGroup	 v2c	    mynet

	      # 	     incl/excl	 subtree     [mask]
	      view   all     included	 .1
	      view   sysView included	 system

	      # 	     context model level   prefix  read    write  notify (unused)
	      access  worldGroup  ""  any  noauth  exact   system  none   none
	      access  myGroup	  ""  any  noauth  exact   all	   all	  none

       There are several points to note in this example:

       The  group  directives  must  be  repeated  for both SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c

       The com2sec security name is distinct from the community string that is
       mapped	to   it.   They  can  be  the  same  ("public")  or  different
       ("mynet"/"private") - but what appears in the group  directive  is  the
       security name, regardless of the original community string.

       Both  of  the view directives are defining simple OID subtrees, so nei
       ther of these require an explicit mask.	The same holds for  the  "com
       bined  subtree2	view  defined  below.	In  fact, a mask field is only
       needed when defining row slices across a table (or similar views),  and
       can almost always be omitted.

       In  general,  it  is  advisible	not  to mix traditional and VACM-based
       access configuration settings, as these can  sometimes  interfere  with
       each  other  in	unexpected  ways.  Choose a particular style of access
       configuration, and stick to it.

   Typed-View Configuration
       A similar configuration could also be configured as follows:
	      view   sys2View included	  system
	      view   sys2View included	  .

	      authcommunity read       public  default	    -v sys2View
	      authcommunity read,write private

       This mechanism allows multi-subtree (or other non-simple) views	to  be
       used with the one-line rocommunity style of configuration.

       It  would  also support configuring "write-only" access, should this be

   System Group
       The full contents of the system group (with the exception  of  sysUp
       Time) can be explicitly configured using:
	      # Override uname -a and hardcoded system OID - inherently read-only values
	      sysDescr	   Universal Turing Machine mk I
	      sysObjectID  .

	      # Override default values from configure - makes these objects read-only
	      sysContact   Alan.Turing@pre-cs.man.ac.uk
	      sysName	   tortoise.turing.com
	      sysLocation  An idea in the mind of AT

	      # Standard end-host behaviour
	      sysServices  72

   Host Resources Group
       The  list  of devices probed for potential inclusion in the hrDiskStor
       ageTable (and hrDeviceTable) can be amended using any of the  following
	      ignoredisk /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0
       which prevents the device /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0 from being scanned,
	      ignoredisk /dev/rdsk/c0t[!6]d0
	      ignoredisk /dev/rdsk/c0t[0-57-9a-f]d0
       either	of   which   prevents  all  devices  /dev/rdsk/c0tXd0  (except
       .../c0t6d0) from being scanned,
	      ignoredisk /dev/rdsk/c1*
       which prevents all devices whose device names start  with  /dev/rdsk/c1
       from being scanned, or
	      ignoredisk /dev/rdsk/c?t0d0
       which  prevents	all  devices /dev/rdsk/cXt0d0 (where X is any single
       character) from being scanned.

   Process Monitoring
       The list of services running on a system can be monitored  (and	provi
       sion made for correcting any problems), using:
	      # At least one web server process must be running at all times
	      proc    httpd
	      procfix httpd  /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart

	      # There should never be more than 10 mail processes running
	      #    (more implies a probable mail storm, so shut down the mail system)
	      proc    sendmail	 10
	      procfix sendmail	/etc/rc.d/init.d/sendmail stop

	      # There should be a single network management agent running
	      #   ("There can be only one")
	      proc    snmpd    1  1
       Also see the "DisMan Event MIB" section later on.

   Disk Usage Monitoring
       The state of disk storage can be monitored using:
	      includeAllDisks 10%
	      disk /var 20%
	      disk /usr  3%
	      #  Keep 100 Mb free for crash dumps
	      disk /mnt/crash  100000

   System Load Monitoring
       A simple check for an overloaded system might be:
	      load 10
       A  more	refined check (to allow brief periods of heavy use, but recog
       nise sustained medium-heavy load) might be:
	      load 30 10 5

   Log File Monitoring
	      file FILE [MAXSIZE]

   Notification Handling
       Configuring the agent to report invalid access attempts might  be  done
	      authtrapenable 1
	      trapcommunity  public
	      trap2sink      localhost
       Alternatively,  the  second and third directives could be combined (and
       an acknowledgement requested) using:
	      informsink     localhost	public
       A configuration with repeated sink destinations, such as:
	      trapsink	     localhost
	      trap2sink      localhost
	      informsink     localhost
       should NOT be used, as this will cause multiple copies of each trap  to
       be sent to the same trap receiver.

       TODO - discuss SNMPv3 traps
	      trapsess	snmpv3 options	localhost:162

       TODO - mention trapd access configuration

   DisMan Event MIB
       The  simplest configuration for active self-monitoring of the agent, by
       the agent, for the agent, is probably:
	      # Set up the credentials to retrieve monitored values
	      createUser    _internal MD5 "the first sign of madness"
	      iquerySecName _internal
	      rouser	    _internal

	      # Active the standard monitoring entries
	      defaultMonitors	      yes
	      linkUpDownNotifications yes

	      # If theres a problem, then tell someone!
	      trap2sink localhost

       The first block sets up a suitable user for retrieving the  information
       to by monitored, while the following pair of directives activates vari
       ous built-in monitoring entries.

       Note that the  DisMan  directives  are  not  themselves	sufficient  to
       actively  report  problems - there also needs to be a suitable destina
       tion configured to actually send the resulting notifications to.

       A more detailed monitor example is given by:
	      monitor -u me -o	hrSWRunName  "high  process  memory"  hrSWRun
	      PerfMem > 10000

       This defines an explicit boolean monitor entry, looking for any process
       using more than 10Mb of active memory.  Such processes will be reported
       using  the  (standard) DisMan trap mteTriggerFired, but adding an extra
       (wildcarded) varbind hrSWRunName.

       This entry also specifies an explicit user (me, as defined earlier) for
       retrieving the monitored values, and building the trap.

       Objects that could potentially fluctuate around the specified level are
       better monitored using a threshold monitor entry:
	      monitor -D -r 10 "network traffic" ifInOctets 1000000 5000000

       This will send a mteTriggerRising trap whenever	the  incoming  traffic
       rises  above  (roughly) 500 kB/s on any network interface, and a corre
       sponding mteTriggerFalling trap when it falls below 100 kB/s again.

       Note that this monitors the  deltas  between  successive  samples  (-D)
       rather than the actual sample values themselves.  The same effect could
       be obtained using:
	      monitor -r 10 "network traffic" ifInOctets - - 1000000 5000000

       The linkUpDownNotifications directive above is broadly equivalent to:
	      notificationEvent  linkUpTrap    linkUp	ifIndex ifAdminStatus ifOperStatus
	      notificationEvent  linkDownTrap  linkDown ifIndex ifAdminStatus ifOperStatus

	      monitor  -r 60 -e linkUpTrap   "Generate linkUp"	 ifOperStatus != 2
	      monitor  -r 60 -e linkDownTrap "Generate linkDown" ifOperStatus == 2

       This defines the  traps	to  be	sent  (using  notificationEvent),  and
       explicitly  references  the  relevant notification in the corresponding
       monitor entry (rather than using the default DisMan traps).

       The defaultMonitors directive  above  is  equivalent  to  a  series  of
       (boolean) monitor entries:
	      monitor	-o prNames	-o prErrMessage  "procTable" prErrorFlag   != 0
	      monitor	-o memErrorName -o memSwapErrorMsg "memory"  memSwapError  != 0
	      monitor	-o extNames	-o extOutput	 "extTable"  extResult	   != 0
	      monitor	-o dskPath	-o dskErrorMsg	 "dskTable"  dskErrorFlag  != 0
	      monitor	-o laNames	-o laErrMessage  "laTable"   laErrorFlag   != 0
	      monitor	-o fileName	-o fileErrorMsg  "fileTable" fileErrorFlag != 0
       and  will send a trap whenever any of these entries indicate a problem.

       An alternative approach would be to  automatically  invoke  the	corre
       sponding "fix" action:
	      setEvent	 prFixIt  prErrFix = 1
	      monitor -e prFixIt "procTable" prErrorFlag   != 0
       (and similarly for any of the other defaultMonitor entries).

   DisMan Schedule MIB
       The agent could be configured to reload its configuration once an hour,
	      repeat 3600 versionUpdateConfig.0 = 1

       Alternatively this could be configured to be run at specific  times  of
       day (perhaps following rotation of the logs):
	      cron 10 0 * * * versionUpdateConfig.0 = 1

       The  one-shot style of scheduling is rather less common, but the secret
       SNMP virus could be activated on the  next  occurance  of  Friday  13th
	      at   13 13 13 * 5 snmpVirus.0 = 1

   Arbitrary Extension Commands
       Old Style
	      exec [MIBOID] NAME PROG ARGS"
	      sh   [MIBOID] NAME PROG ARGS"
	      execfix NAME PROG ARGS"
       New Style
	      extend [MIBOID] NAME PROG ARGS"
	      extendfix [MIBOID] NAME PROG ARGS"

   MIB-Specific Extension Commands
	      "pass [-p priority] MIBOID PROG"

	      "pass_persist [-p priority] MIBOID PROG"

   Embedded Perl Support
       If embedded perl support is enabled in the agent, the default initiali
       sation is equivalent to the directives:
	      disablePerl  false
	      perlInitFile /usr/share/snmp/snmp_perl.pl
       The main mechanism for defining	embedded  perl	scripts  is  the  perl
       directive.   A very simple (if somewhat pointless) MIB handler could be
       registered using:
	      perl use Data::Dumper;
	      perl sub myroutine  { print "got called: ",Dumper(@_),"\n"; }
	      perl $agent->register(mylink, ., \&myroutine);

       This relies on the $agent object, defined in the  example  snmp_perl.pl

       A more realistic MIB handler might be:
	      XXX - WHAT ???
       Alternatively,  this  code  could  be  stored  in an external file, and
       loaded using:
	      perl do /usr/share/snmp/perl_example.pl;

   Dynamically Loadable Modules
	      dlmod NAME PATH"

   Proxy Support
       A configuration for acting as a simple proxy for two other SNMP	agents
       (running on remote systems) might be:
	      com2sec -Cn rem1context  rem1user default  remotehost1
	      com2sec -Cn rem2context  rem2user default  remotehost2

	      proxy -Cn rem1context  -v 1 -c public  remotehost1  .1.3
	      proxy -Cn rem2context  -v 1 -c public  remotehost2  .1.3
       (plus suitable access control entries).

       The  same  proxy  directives  would  also  work	with (incoming) SNMPv3
       requests, which can specify a context directly.	It would  probably  be
       more  sensible  to  use	contexts  of remotehost1 and remotehost2 - the
       names above were chosen to indicate how these directives work together.

       Note that the administrative settings for the proxied request are spec
       ified explicitly, and are independent of the settings from the incoming

       An  alternative	use for the proxy directive is to pass part of the OID
       tree to another agent (either on a remote host or listening on  a  dif
       ferent port on the same system), while handling the rest internally:
	      proxy -v 1 -c public  localhost:6161  .
       This mechanism can be used to link together two separate SNMP agents.

       A  less	usual  approach is to map one subtree into a different area of
       the overall MIB tree (either locally or on a remote system):
	      # uses SNMPv3 to access the MIB tree . on remotehost
	      # and maps this to the local tree .
	      proxy -v 3 -l noAuthNoPriv -u user remotehost . .

   SMUX Sub-Agents
	      smuxpeer . ospf_pass

   AgentX Sub-Agents
       The Net-SNMP agent could be configured to operate as an	AgentX	master
       agent  (listening on a non-standard named socket, and running using the
       access privileges defined earlier), using:
	      master agentx
	      agentXSocket /tmp/agentx/master
	      agentXPerms  0660 0550 nobody snmp
       A sub-agent wishing to connect to this master agent would need the same
       agentXSocket directive, or the equivalent code:

       A loopback networked AgentX configuration could be set up using:
	      agentXSocket   tcp:localhost:705
	      agentXTimeout  5
	      agentXRetries  2
       on the master side, and:
	      agentXSocket   tcp:localhost:705
	      agentXTimeout  10
	      agentXRetries  1
	      agentXPingInterval 600
       on the client.

       Note  that the timeout and retry settings can be asymmetric for the two
       directions, and the sub-agent can poll  the  master  agent  at  regular
       intervals  (600s = every 10 minutes), to ensure the connection is still

	      override sysDescr.0 octet_str "my own sysDescr"
	      injectHandler stash_cache NAME table_iterator


       snmpconf(1),  snmpd.conf(5),  snmp.conf(5),  snmp_config(5),  snmpd(8),
       EXAMPLE.conf, read_config(3).

4th Berkeley Distribution	  05 Dec 2005		     SNMPD.EXAMPLES(5)

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