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STRTOUL(3)		   Linux Programmers Manual		   STRTOUL(3)

       strtoul, strtoull, strtouq - convert a string to an unsigned long inte


       unsigned long int strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       unsigned long long int strtoull(const char *nptr, char **endptr,
				       int base);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       strtoull(): XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600 || _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE ||
       _ISOC99_SOURCE; or cc -std=c99

       The  strtoul() function converts the initial part of the string in nptr
       to an unsigned long int value according to the given base,  which  must
       be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter
       mined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.  If
       base  is zero or 16, the string may then include a "0x" prefix, and the
       number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken	as  10
       (decimal)  unless  the next character is '0', in which case it is taken
       as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int  value
       in  the	obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a
       valid digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter  'A'  in
       either  upper  or  lower  case represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so
       forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL,  strtoul()  stores  the  address	of  the  first
       invalid	character  in  *endptr.   If there were no digits at all, str
       toul() stores the original value of nptr in *endptr  (and  returns  0).
       In particular, if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the
       entire string is valid.

       The strtoull() function works just  like  the  strtoul()  function  but
       returns an unsigned long long int value.

       The  strtoul() function returns either the result of the conversion or,
       if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the  result  of  the
       conversion  represented as an unsigned value, unless the original (non-
       negated) value would overflow; in the latter  case,  strtoul()  returns
       ULONG_MAX  and sets the global variable errno to ERANGE.  Precisely the
       same holds for strtoull() (with ULLONG_MAX instead of ULONG_MAX).

       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       The implementation may also set errno to EINVAL in case	no  conversion
       was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).

       strtoul()  conforms to SVr4, C89, C99 and POSIX-2001, and strtoull() to
       C99 and POSIX.1-2001.

       Since strtoul() can legitimately return 0 or  LONG_MAX  (LLONG_MAX  for
       strtoull()) on both success and failure, the calling program should set
       errno to 0 before the call, and then determine if an error occurred  by
       checking whether errno has a non-zero value after the call.

       In  locales  other  than the "C" locale, other strings may be accepted.
       (For example, the thousands separator of the current locale may be sup

       BSD also has

	   u_quad_t strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
       current architecture, this may be equivalent to strtoull() or  to  str

       Negative  values  are considered valid input and are silently converted
       to the equivalent unsigned long int value.

       See the example on the strtol(3) manual page; the use of the  functions
       described in this manual page is similar.

       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol(3)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.05 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU				  2007-07-26			    STRTOUL(3)

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