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TROFF(1)							      TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -mname ] [ -Mdir ]
	     [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ] [ -Wname ]
	     [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff  document	formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre
       processors and postprocessors in the appropriate  order	and  with  the
       appropriate options.

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b	 Print	a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
		 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
		 line  numbers	given  in the backtrace may not always be cor
		 rect, for troffs idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
		 am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C	 Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must  be	a  one	letter

       -E	 Inhibit  all error messages of troff.	Note that this doesnt
		 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
		 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir	 Search  in  directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto
		 ries devname (name is the name of the device) and  there  for
		 the  DESC  file  and  font  files.  dir is scanned before all
		 other font directories.

       -i	 Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
		 been processed.

       -mname	 Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isnt found, try tmac.name
		 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
		 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
		 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
		 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
		 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,   /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,   and

       -Mdir	 Search  directory  (or  directory  path) dir for macro files.
		 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum	 Number the first page num.

       -olist	 Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
		 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
		 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-  means
		 print	every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
		 last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
		 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Dont load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps.

       -U	 Unsafe  mode.	This will enable the following requests: open,
		 opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,  these	poten
		 tially  dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
		 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
		 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
		 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following
       categories.   The  name	associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn	request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

		 |Bit	Code   Warning | Bit	Code	  Warning   |
		 |  0	   1   char    |  10	 1024	reg	    |
		 |  1	   2   number  |  11	 2048	tab	    |
		 |  2	   4   break   |  12	 4096	right-brace |
		 |  3	   8   delim   |  13	 8192	missing     |
		 |  4	  16   el      |  14	16384	input	    |
		 |  5	  32   scale   |  15	32768	escape	    |
		 |  6	  64   range   |  16	65536	space	    |
		 |  7	 128   syntax  |  17   131072	font	    |
		 |  8	 256   di      |  18   262144	ig	    |
		 |  9	 512   mac     |  19   524288	color	    |

       break	       4   In fill mode, lines which could not	be  broken  so
			   that  their	length	was less than the line length.
			   This is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent  characters.   This  is   enabled   by

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use	of  di or da without an argument when there is
			   no current diversion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie  request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized  escape  sequences.   When an unrecog
			   nized escape sequence is  encountered,  the	escape
			   character is ignored.

       font	  131072   Non-existent fonts.	This is enabled by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid   escapes  in  text	ignored  with  the  ig
			   request.  These are conditions that are errors when
			   they do not occur in ignored text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use	of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.
			   When an undefined string,  macro  or  diversion  is
			   used,  that	string	is  automatically  defined  as
			   empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
			   be given for each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by

       range	      64   Out of range arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When  an  unde
			   fined  number  register  is	used, that register is
			   automatically defined to have a value of 0.	So, in
			   most  cases,  at most one warning will be given for
			   use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
			   argument.  This warning will be given when an unde
			   fined name longer than two  characters  is  encoun
			   tered,  and	the  first  two characters of the name
			   make a defined name.  The request or macro will not
			   be  invoked.   When this warning is given, no macro
			   is  automatically  defined.	 This  is  enabled  by
			   default.  This warning will never occur in compati
			   bility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.   Either  use
			   of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
			   use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
	      covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack

       w      All warnings.

	      A  colon	separated  list  of directories in which to search for
	      macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
	      before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
	      in  unsafe  mode,  home	directory,   /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,
	      /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,  /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac) after

	      Default device.

	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
	      devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
	      option   before	these,	  and	 in    standard    directories
	      (/usr/share/groff/site-font,	 /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font,
	      /usr/lib/font) after these.

	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

	      Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

	      Macro files

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in  the  current
       nor  in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U  option  is  given).	 Use  the  -M  command	line  option  or   the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH	environment  variable  to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft  site  http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.   This document
       was written by James Clark,  with  modifications  from  Werner  Lemberg
       wl@gnu.org and Bernd Warken bwarken@mayn.de

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

	      A  description of the groff language, including a short but com
	      plete reference  of  all	predefined  requests,  registers,  and
	      escapes  of  plain groff.  From the command line, this is called

		     man 7 groff

	      The differences of the groff language and  the  classical  troff
	      language.   Currently,  this  is the most actual document of the
	      groff system.

	      An overview over groff and other roff systems, including	point
	      ers to further related documentation.

       The  groff  info  file,	cf.  info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.

Groff Version 1.18.1		 17 April 2006			      TROFF(1)

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