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SNMPCMD(1)			   Net-SNMP			    SNMPCMD(1)

       snmpcmd - options and behaviour common to most of the Net-SNMP command-
       line tools


       This manual page describes the common options for  the  SNMP  commands:
       snmpbulkget,  snmpbulkwalk,  snmpdelta,	snmpget, snmpgetnext, snmpnet
       stat, snmpset, snmpstatus, snmptable, snmptest, snmptrap,  snmpdf, snm
       pusm  , snmpwalk .  The command line applications use the SNMP protocol
       to communicate with an SNMP capable network entity, an agent.  Individ
       ual applications typically (but not necessarily) take additional param
       eters that are given after the agent specification.   These  parameters
       are documented in the manual pages for each application.

       -3[MmKk]  0xHEXKEY
	      Sets the keys to be used for SNMPv3 transactions.  These options
	      allow you to set the master authentication and  encryption  keys
	      (-3m  and  -3M respectively) or set the localized authentication
	      and encryption keys (-3k and -3K respectively).  SNMPv3 keys can
	      be  either passed in by hand using these flags, or by the use of
	      keys generated from passwords using the -A  and  -X  flags  dis
	      cussed  below.   For  further details on SNMPv3 and its usage of
	      keying  information,  see  the  Net-SNMP	tutorial  web  site  (
	      http://www.Net-SNMP.org/tutorial-5/commands/  ).	 Overrides the
	      defAuthMasterKey (-3m),  defPrivMasterKey  (-3M),  defAuthLocal
	      izedKey (-3k) or defPrivLocalizedKey (-3K) tokens, respectively,
	      in the snmp.conf file, see snmp.conf(5).

       -a authProtocol
	      Set the authentication protocol (MD5 or SHA) used for  authenti
	      cated  SNMPv3  messages.	Overrides the defAuthType token in the
	      snmp.conf file.

       -A authPassword
	      Set the authentication pass phrase used for authenticated SNMPv3
	      messages.    Overrides   the   defAuthPassphrase	token  in  the
	      snmp.conf file. It is insecure to specify pass  phrases  on  the
	      command line, see snmp.conf(5).

       -c community
	      Set the community string for SNMPv1/v2c transactions.  Overrides
	      the defcommunity token in the snmp.conf file.

       -d     Dump (in hexadecimal) the sent and received SNMP packets.

       -D TOKEN[,...]
	      Turn on debugging output for the given TOKEN(s).	 Try  ALL  for
	      extremely verbose output.

       -e engineID
	      Set  the	authoritative  (security)  engineID  used  for	SNMPv3
	      REQUEST messages.  It is	typically  not	necessary  to  specify
	      this, as it will usually be discovered automatically.

       -E engineID
	      Set the context engineID used for SNMPv3 REQUEST messages scope
	      dPdu.  If not specified, this will default to the  authoritative

       -h, --help
	      Display a brief usage message and then exit.

       -H     Display  a  list	of configuration file directives understood by
	      the command and then exit.

       -I [brRhu]
	      Specifies input parsing options. See INPUT OPTIONS below.

       -l secLevel
	      Set  the	securityLevel  used  for  SNMPv3  messages  (noAuthNo
	      Priv|authNoPriv|authPriv).  Appropriate pass phrase(s) must pro
	      vided when using any level higher than noAuthNoPriv.   Overrides
	      the defSecurityLevel token in the snmp.conf file.

       -L [eEfFoOsS]
	      Specifies output logging options. See LOGGING OPTIONS below.

       -m MIBLIST
	      Specifies  a  colon separated list of MIB modules (not files) to
	      load for this application.  This overrides the environment vari
	      able MIBS.

	      The  special  keyword  ALL is used to specify all modules in all
	      directories when searching for MIB files.  Every file whose name
	      does not begin with "." will be parsed as if it were a MIB file.

	      If the MIBLIST has a leading +, then the	listed	MIB  modules
	      are  loaded in addition to MIB modules specified in the environ
	      ment variable MIBS.

	      If a mibfile token is specified in the snmp.conf	file,  the  -m
	      MIB option overrides the mibfile token.

       -M DIRLIST
	      Specifies  a  colon  separated list of directories to search for
	      MIBs.  This overrides the environment variable MIBDIRS.

	      If DIRLIST has a leading +, then	the  given  directories  are
	      added  to the list of MIB directories.  Without the leading +,
	      the given directory list overrides the list specified  with  the
	      environment  variable  MIBDIRS. Note that the directories listed
	      at the end of the list have precedence over directories  at  the
	      beginning of the list.

	      If  no  value is specified for the environment variable MIBDIRS,
	      then the command will still  search  a  default  mib  directory,
	      after  it  searches  the	MIB  directories  specified  on the -M
	      option.  The  default  directory	is  /usr/share/snmp/mibs.   To
	      avoid  having  a default mib directory searched, set the MIBDIRS
	      environment variable to "".  Even if the default	MIB  directory
	      is  searched,  the  directories  specified in the -M option have
	      precedence in the search order over the default directory.

	      If the -M option is specified and either a  mibfile  or  mibdirs
	      token  is  also specified in the snmp.conf file, the directories
	      in the -M option have precedence in the MIB search  order,  over
	      the  directories set with both the mibdirs token and the mibfile

       -n contextName
	      Set the destination contextName used for SNMPv3  messages.   The
	      default  contextName is the empty string "".  Overrides the def
	      Context token in the snmp.conf file.

       -O [abeEfnqQsStTuUvxX]
	      Specifies output printing options. See OUTPUT OPTIONS below.

       -P [cdeRuwW]
	      Specifies MIB parsing options.  See MIB PARSING OPTIONS below.

       -r retries
	      Specifies the number of retries to be used in the requests.  The
	      default is 5.

       -t timeout
	      Specifies the timeout in seconds between retries. The default is

       -u secName
	      Set the securityName used  for  authenticated  SNMPv3  messages.
	      Overrides the defSecurityName token in the snmp.conf file.

       -v 1 | 2c | 3
	      Specifies  the  protocol	version to use: 1 (RFCs 1155-1157), 2c
	      (RFCs 1901-1908), or 3 (RFCs 2571-2574).	The default  is  typi
	      cally  version  3. This option overrides the defVersion token in
	      the snmp.conf file.

       -V, --version
	      Display version information for the application and then exit.

       -x privProtocol
	      Set the privacy protocol (DES) used for  encrypted  SNMPv3  mes
	      sages.   Overrides  the defPrivType token in the snmp.conf file.
	      Only valid if OpenSSL is available.

       -X privPassword
	      Set the privacy pass phrase used for encrypted SNMPv3  messages.
	      Overrides the defPrivPassphrase token in the snmp.conf file.  It
	      is insecure to specify pass phrases on  the  command  line,  see

       -Z boots,time
	      Set the engineBoots and engineTime used for authenticated SNMPv3
	      messages.  This will initialize the local notion of  the	agents
	      boots/time with an authenticated value stored in the LCD.  It is
	      typically not necessary to specify this option, as these	values
	      will usually be discovered automatically.

	      Allows  to specify any token ("name") supported in the snmp.conf
	      file and sets its value to "value". Overrides the  corresponding
	      token  in the snmp.conf file. See snmp.conf(5) for the full list
	      of tokens.

       The string AGENT in the SYNOPSIS above specifies the remote SNMP entity
       with which to communicate.  This specification takes the form:


       At  its simplest, the AGENT specification may consist of a hostname, or
       an IPv4 address in the standard "dotted quad" notation.	In this  case,
       communication will be attempted using UDP/IPv4 to port 161 of the given
       host.  Otherwise, the  part of the specification  is
       parsed according to the following table:


	   udp			       hostname[:port] or IPv4-address[:port]

	   tcp			       hostname[:port] or IPv4-address[:port]

	   unix 		       pathname

	   ipx			       [network]:node[/port]

	   aal5pvc or pvc	       [interface.][VPI.]VCI

	   udp6 or udpv6 or udpipv6    hostname[:port] or IPv6-address:port or

	   tcp6 or tcpv6 or tcpipv6    hostname[:port] or IPv6-address:port or

       Note  that   strings are case-insensitive so that,
       for example, "tcp" and "TCP" are equivalent.  Here are  some  examples,
       along with their interpretation:

       hostname:161	       perform query using UDP/IPv4 datagrams to host
			       name on port 161.  The ":161" is redundant here
			       since  that  is	the  default  SNMP port in any

       udp:hostname	       identical to the previous  specification.   The
			       "udp:"  is redundant here since UDP/IPv4 is the
			       default transport.

       TCP:hostname:1161       connect to hostname on port 1161 using TCP/IPv4
			       and perform query over that connection.

       ipx::00D0B7AAE308       perform	query using IPX datagrams to node num
			       ber 00D0B7AAE308 on the	default  network,  and
			       using  the default IPX port of 36879 (900F hex
			       adecimal), as suggested in RFC 1906.

			       perform query using IPX datagrams to port  1161
			       on  node  number 00D0B721C6C0 on network number

       unix:/tmp/local-agent   connect to the Unix domain  socket  /tmp/local-
			       agent,  and perform the query over that connec

       /tmp/local-agent        identical to the previous specification,  since
			       the  Unix  domain  is the default transport iff
			       the first character of the  
			       is a /.

       AAL5PVC:100	       perform	the  query using AAL5 PDUs sent on the
			       permanent  virtual  circuit  with   VPI=0   and
			       VCI=100	(decimal)  on the first ATM adapter in
			       the machine.

       PVC:1.10.32	       perform the query using AAL5 PDUs sent  on  the
			       permanent virtual circuit with VPI=10 (decimal)
			       and VCI=32 (decimal) on the second ATM  adapter
			       in  the	machine.  Note that "PVC" is a synonym
			       for "AAL5PVC".

       udp6:hostname:10161     perform the query using UDP/IPv6  datagrams  to
			       port 10161 on hostname (which will be looked up
			       as an AAAA record).

			       perform the query using UDP/IPv6  datagrams  to
			       port 161 at address fe80::2d0:b7ff:fe21:c6c0.

       tcpipv6:[::1]:1611      connect	to port 1611 on the local host (::1 in
			       IPv6 parlance) using TCP/IPv6 and perform query
			       over that connection.

       Note  that  not	all  the transport domains listed above will always be
       available; for instance, hosts with no IPv6 support will not be able to
       use  udp6 transport addresses, and attempts to do so will result in the
       error "Unknown host".  Likewise, since AAL5 PVC support	is  only  cur
       rently  available  on  Linux, it will fail with the same error on other

       The Net-SNMP MIB parser mostly adheres to the Structure	of  Management
       Information (SMI).  As that specification has changed through time, and
       in recognition of the (ahem) diversity in compliance expressed  in  MIB
       files,  additional  options  provide  more  flexibility	in reading MIB

       -Pw    Show some warning messages in resolving the MIB files.   Can  be
	      also set with the configuration token "mibWarningLevel".

       -PW    Show additional warning messages.  Can be also set with the con
	      figuration token "mibWarningLevel".

       -Pe    Show MIB errors.	Can be also set with the  configuration  token
	      "showMibErrors".	 An example of an error that would be shown is
	      if an imported module is not found during MIB parsing.

       -Pc    Allow ASN.1 comment to extend to the end of the MIB source  line
	      (i.e.  disallow  the  use  of "--" to terminate comments).  This
	      overcomes some problems with manually maintained MIB files.  Can
	      be also set with the configuration token "strictCommentTerm".

       -Pd    Toggles  the  default of whether or not to save the DESCRIPTIONs
	      of the MIB objects when parsing.	Since the default is  to  save
	      the DESCRIPTIONS, specifying -Pd will cause the DESCRIPTIONs not
	      to be saved during MIB parsing.  For example:

	      snmptranslate -Td -OS -IR system.sysDescr.0

	      will show a description, while

	      snmptranslate -Td -OS -IR -Pd system.sysDescr.0

	      will not show a description.  Collecting the DESCRIPTION	infor
	      mation  into  the  parsed hierarchy increases the memory used by
	      the size of each DESCRIPTION clause.

       -Pu    Allow underline characters in symbols.  Can be also set with the
	      configuration token "mibAllowUnderline".

       -PR    Replace  MIB  objects  using the last read MIB file.  The parser
	      will replace MIB objects in its hierarchy  whenever  it  sees  a
	      sub-identifier and name match.  WARNING: Setting this option may
	      result in an incorrect hierarchy.  Can be also set with the con
	      figuration token "mibReplaceWithLatest".

       Output  display	can be controlled by passing various parameters to the
       -O flag.  The following examples should demonstrate this.

       The default output looks as follows:
       snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost system.sysUpTime.0
       SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

       -Oq    Removes the equal sign and type information:
	      system.sysUpTime.0 1:15:09:27.63

       -OQ    Removes the type information:
	      system.sysUpTime.0 = 1:15:09:27.63

       -Of    Gives you the complete OID:
	       .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.system.sysUpTime.0  =	Timet
	      icks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

       -Os    Deletes all but the last symbolic part of the OID:
	      sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

       -OS    A  variation  on	-Os that adds the name of the MIB that defined
	      the object:
	      SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0	=   Timeticks:	 (14096763)   1   day,
	      (from release 5.0, this is now the default output format)

       -Ou    Prints the OID in the UCD-style (inherited from the original CMU
	      code), That means removing a series of "standard"  prefixes,  if
	      relevant, and breaking down the OID into the displayable pieces.
	      For example, the OID vacmSecruityModel. is broken
	      down  by default and the string hidden in the OID is shown.  The
	      result would  look  like:  vacmSecurityModel.0."wes".   The  -Ob
	      option disables this feature.
	      system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

       -On    Prints the OID numerically:
	       . = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

       -Oe    Removes the symbolic labels from enumerations:
	      snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
	      ip.ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: forwarding(1)
	      snmpget -c public -v 1 -Oe localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
	      ip.ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: 1

       -Ob    When  OIDs  contain a index to a table, they are broken into the
	      displayable pieces and shown to you.  For example the OID  vacm
	      SecurityModel.  is  nicely broken down by default
	      and the string hidden in the OID is shown to you as  vacmSecuri
	      tyModel.0."wes".	 The -Ob option disables this feature and dis
	      plays it as vacmSecurityModel. again.

       -OE    This modifies the index strings to include a  \  to  escape  the
	      quotes,  to  allow  them to be reused in shell commands, such as

       -OX    This modifies the output of index OIDs, to  look	more  "program
	      like".   Square  brackets  are placed around each index, and the
	      DISPLAY-HINT information and string conversions are used to for
	      mat   each   index.    If   you	take   an   entry   from   the
	      IPV6-MIB::ipv6RouteTable, it is indexed with an IPv6 address and
	      two  integers,  and  if  you are used to IPv6 addresses you will
	      know that decimal OIDs are not the preferred notation. Compare:
	      snmpgetnext -OS host IPV6-MIB:ipv6RouteTable
	      = INTEGER: 2
	      snmpgetnext -OSX host IPV6-MIB:ipv6RouteTable
	      IPV6-MIB::ipv6RouteIfIndex[3ffe:100:ff00:0:0:0:0:0][64][1]     =
	      INTEGER: 2

       -Oa    If a string-valued object definition does not include a  Display
	      Hint,  then  the	library attempts to determine whether it is an
	      ascii or binary string,  and  displays  the  value  accordingly.
	      This  flag  bypasses  this  check,  and  displays all strings as
	      ASCII.  Note that this does not affect objects that  do  have  a
	      Display Hint.

       -Ox    This works similarly to -Oa, but displays strings as Hex.

       -OT    If  hexadecimal code is printed, this will also print any print
	      able characters after the hexadecimal codes.

       -Ov    Output only the variable value, not the OID:
	      snmpget -c public -v 1 -Ov localhost ip.ipForwarding.0
	      INTEGER: forwarding(1)

       -OU    Do not print the UNITS suffix at the end of the value.

       -Ot    Output timeticks values as raw numbers:
	      system.sysUpTime.0 = 14096763

       Note that most of these options can be turned on or off by  default  by
       tuning  the  snmp.conf  file.  See  the	snmp.conf(5)  manual  page for

       The mechanism and destination to use for logging of warning  and  error
       messages  can  be  controlled  by  passing various parameters to the -L

       -Le    Log messages to the standard error stream.

       -Lf FILE
	      Log messages to the specified file.

       -Lo    Log messages to the standard output stream.

       -Ls FACILITY
	      Log messages via syslog, using the specified facility  (d  for
	      LOG_DAEMON,  u for LOG_USER, or 0-7 for LOG_LOCAL0 through

       There are also "upper case" versions of each of	these  options,  which
       allow  the  corresponding logging mechanism to be restricted to certain
       priorities of message.  Using standard error logging as an example:

       -LE pri
	      will log messages of priority pri and above to standard error.

       -LE p1-p2
	      will  log  messages  with priority between p1 and p2 (inclu
	      sive) to standard error.

       For -LF and -LS the priority specification comes  before  the  file  or
       facility token.	The priorities recognised are:

	      0 or !  for LOG_EMERG,
	      1 or a for LOG_ALERT,
	      2 or c for LOG_CRIT,
	      3 or e for LOG_ERR,
	      4 or w for LOG_WARNING,
	      5 or n for LOG_NOTICE,
	      6 or i for LOG_INFO, and
	      7 or d for LOG_DEBUG.

       Normal output is (or will be!) logged at a priority level of LOG_NOTICE

       The -I flag specifies various options that control how  your  input  to
       the program is parsed.  By default, all input parsing methods are used:
       First the OID is parsed regularly, then -IR is used, then -Ib is  used,
       unless  one  of the following flags is specified which will force it to
       only use one method.

       -IR    The -IR flag specifies random access  lookup,  so  that  if  the
	      entire  OID  path is not specified, it will search for a node in
	      the MIB tree with the given name.  Normally, you would  have  to
	      specify  the  vacmSecurityModel OID above as .iso.org.dod.inter
	      but the use of the -IR flag allows you to shorten that  to  just
	      vacmSecurityModel.0."wes".   (Though this OID really needs to be
	      quoted - vacmSecurityModel.0."wes" - to prevent the shell from
	      swallowing the double quotes).

	      Additionally, see the RANDOM ACCESS MIBS section below.

       -Ib    The  -Ib flag indicates that the expression you gave it is actu
	      ally a regular expression that should be used to search for  the
	      best  match  possible  in the MIB tree.  This would allow you to
	      specify the node vacmSecurityModel  MIB  node  as  something  as
	      generic  as  vacmsecuritymodel  (since case insensitive searches
	      are done) or vacm.*model.  Note that multiple matches are  obvi
	      ously  possible  (.* matches everything), and the best result is
	      currently calculated as the one that matches the closest to  the
	      beginning  of the node name and the highest in the tree.	A cur
	      rent side effect of this	option	is  that  you  cannot  specify
	      indexes  or  multiple nodes, since the . is treated as part of
	      the regular expression.  The result of that match will thus only
	      match   a  single  node.	 Specifying  MIB  names,  or  trailing
	      nodes/numbers   will   not   succeed.    Thus,	matching    on
	      SNMPv2-MIB::sys.*ontact  will  not  match sysContact even though
	      sys.*ontact would.  Similarly, sys.*ontact.0 will also not match
	      sysContact.0  (though it could match sysContactX0 if such a node

       -Iu    Use the traditional UCD-style input approach  of	assuming  that
	      OIDs  are  rooted  at the mib-2 point in the tree (unless they
	      start with an explicit .)   If  random  access  lookup  is  in
	      effect  (which is the default for most commands), then this will
	      only affect OIDs specified with a leading numberic subidentifier
	      (and  no	initial  .)   Thus an input of "snmpcmd ... 1" would
	      refer to iso (from v5.0 onwards) while  "snmpcmd	-Iu  ...  1"
	      would refer to system.

       -Ir    By  default,  indices  into  tables and values to be assigned to
	      objects are checked against range and type specified in the MIB.
	      The  -Ir	flag  disables this check.  This flag is mostly useful
	      when you are testing an agent.  For normal operation it is  use
	      ful  to  get  your  requests checked before they are sent to the
	      remote agent (the diagnostic that the  library  can  provide  is
	      also much more precise).

       -Ih    By  default,  the library will use DISPLAY-HINT information when
	      assigning values.  This flag disables this behaviour. The result
	      is that instead of
	      snmpset	  localhost    HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemDate.0    =
	      you will have to write
	      snmpset localhost HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemData.0 x "07 D2 0C
	      0A 02 04 06 08"

       -Is SUFFIX
	      Add  the	specified suffix to each textual OID given on the com
	      mand line.  It is useful to specify a common  index  value  when
	      you want to retrieve multiple objects from the same row of a ta

       -IS PREFIX
	      Add the specified prefix to each textual OID given on  the  com
	      mand  line.   Useful  to specify an explicit MIB module name for
	      all objects being retrieved (or for incurably lazy typists)

       In previous releases of the UCD-SNMP package  (and  if  using  the  -Iu
       option),  an object identifier such as system.sysDescr.0 will be lookup
       in a single "well known" place, built into the SNMP library (or	speci
       fied  by  the  PREFIX  environment  variable).	The standard place is:
       .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.  The identifier may alternatively  be
       a  complete object identifier, this is designated by a leading "dot" if
       using UCD-input style, and is the first thing tried otherwise.  To sim
       plify the specification of object identifiers the library supports ran
       dom access to the identifiers in the MIBs. This is requested by the -IR
       option to the SNMP applications.  Additionally, -Os prints OIDs in this
       manner.	Using this, system.sysDescr.0 may also be  entered  as	sysDe
       scr.0.	To  search only a single MIB for the identifier (if it appears
       in more than one), specify it as SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0.  (use  -OS  to
       print  output  OIDs  in this manner, though this is the default as from
       v5.0). This notation will also ensure that the specified MIB is loaded,
       i.e.  it  need  not  be mentioned in the -m option (or MIBS environment

       PREFIX The standard prefix for object identifiers (if  using  UCD-style
	      output).	Defaults to .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2

       MIBS   The  list  of MIBs to load. Defaults to SNMPv2-TC:SNMPv2-MIB:IF-
	      MIB:IP-MIB:TCP-MIB:UDP-MIB:SNMP-VACM-MIB.  Overridden by the  -m

	      The  list  of  directories  to  search  for  MIBs.  Defaults  to
	      /usr/share/snmp/mibs.  Overridden by the -M option.

	      Agent configuration file. See snmpd.conf(5).


	      Application configuration files. See snmp.conf(5).

       snmpget(1),  snmpgetnext(1),  snmpset(1),   snmpbulkget(1),   snmpbulk
       walk(1),   snmpwalk(1),	 snmptable(1),	snmpnetstat(1),  snmpdelta(1),
       snmptrap(1),  snmpinform(1),  snmpusm(1),  snmpstatus(1),  snmptest(1),

4th Berkeley Distribution	  29 Jun 2005			    SNMPCMD(1)

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