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SCREEN(1)							     SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell	in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the users
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,	screen

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments  to  e.g.  the
       escape  command	or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre
       ates  a	new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi
       ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.	 Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
       file  or  at  the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the
       "C-a c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running  a
       command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from  a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not
       run another copy of screen, but will instead supply  the  command  name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ
       ment variable) who will use it to create the  new  window.   The  above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written	to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",	"shut
       down",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter
       minal,  the  terminals  own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".

       Before you begin to use screen youll need to make sure you  have  cor
       rectly  selected  your  terminal  type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  youre  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The	manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesnt allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminals termcap that has  automatic
       margins	turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins	(automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  youve  got	is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be	content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the last position on the screen  may  not
       be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win
	    dows termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the	sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi
	    nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
	    when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those with "WS" in its
	    description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
	    does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
	    session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a  d"	from  screens
	    controlling  terminal.  -D	is  the equivalent to the power detach
	    key.  If no session can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
	    combination  with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful effects can be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or create it. Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary  detach  and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run
	       ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
	       first.	If  it	was not running create it and notify the user.
	       This is the authors favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note: It is always a good idea to check the status	of  your  ses
	    sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and the character generat
	    ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).   The default is "C-a" and a, which can be specified
	    as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
	    default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
	    will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
	    an	already  running session, this option changes only the command
	    character of the attaching user.  This  option  is	equivalent  to
	    either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
	    turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
	    can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis
	    play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
	    .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour

       -l and -ln
	    turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can
	    also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
	    does not start screen, but prints a list of  pid.tty.host  strings
	    identifying  your screen sessions.	Sessions marked detached can
	    be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked attached	are  running
	    and  have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in multiuser
	    mode, it is  marked  multi.  Sessions  marked  as  unreachable
	    either  live  on  a  different host or are dead.  An unreachable
	    session is considered dead, when its name matches either the  name
	    of the local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r
	    flag for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions	marked
	    as dead should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask your sys
	    tem administrator if you are not sure. Remove  sessions  with  the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells  screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
	    "screen  -m"  creation  of	a  new session is enforced, regardless
	    whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
	    not.  This	flag has a special meaning in connection with the -d

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
	       doesnt  attach  to  it.	This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesnt fork  a
	       new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a	more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
	    true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
	    LP).   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying OP
	    in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name
	    Preselect a window. This is usefull when you want to reattach to a
	    specific  windor or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
	    to a specific window. As with screens select commant, "-" selects
	    the  blank	window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
	    the windowlist on the blank window.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
	    exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses
	    sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
	    sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
	    combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
	    that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
	    there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
	    resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com
	    binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of	[pid.]tty.host	may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
	    detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
	    another  users  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
	    indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another	users
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts to resume the first detached screen session it finds.  If
	    successful, all other command-line options	are  ignored.	If  no
	    detached  session exists, starts a new session using the specified
	    options, just as if -R had not been specified. The option  is  set
	    by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses
	    "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option  see

       -s   sets  the  default	shell to the program specified, instead of the
	    value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
	    defined).	This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
	    meaningful	name for the session. This name identifies the session
	    for "screen -list" and "screen -r"	actions.  It  substitutes  the
	    default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro
	    gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your  ter
	    minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the default encoding for new windows to utf8.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does the same as "screen  -ls",  but  removes  destroyed  sessions
	    instead of marking them as dead.  An unreachable session is con
	    sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the  local
	    host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
	    for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  can
	    use  the  -d or -r option to tell screen to look only for attached
	    or detached screen sessions. Note that this command  doesnt  work
	    if the session is password protected.

       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a  C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a	  (select)	Prompt for a window name or number to  switch

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present  a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	...	      ...
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch to window number 0  -  9,  or  to  the
				 blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch the input focus to the next region.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle  to  the  window displayed previously.
				 Note that this binding defaults to  the  com
				 mand  character  typed twice, unless overrid
				 den.  For instance, if  you  use  the	option
				 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send  the  command character (C-a) to window.
				 See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow the user to enter a name for  the  cur
				 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create  a  new window with a shell and switch
				 to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screens visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
				 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
				 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle  this  windows	login  slot. Available
				 only if screen is configured  to  update  the
				 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat the last message displayed in the mes
				 sage line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show the number (and title)  of  the  current

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
				 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete all regions but the current one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle the current windows line-wrap setting
				 (turn	the current windows automatic margins
				 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current region into two new ones.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a list of window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend screen.   Your  system  must  support
				 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset	the virtual terminal to its "power-on"

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
				 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows where screen comes from, where it  went
				 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop  monitoring the current window for

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a listing of all currently attached dis

       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /var/run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.
       If  screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should com
       pile screen with an adequate (not NFS  mounted)	socket	directory.  If
       screen  is  not	running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the users home directory.
       These are the "programmers defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are	used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the	begin
       ning  of  your  screen session.	Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A commands arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A #
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel
       ligible	lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the $-character has to be protected with \  if	no
       variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done on-line. To  enter  the  command	mode
       type  C-a  :.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?".   executed.	To add a user with restricted access, use the
       aclchg command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). Addacl is a
       synonym to acladd.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as r, w and x. Prefixing + grants the permis
       sion, - removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe
       cial list # refers to all windows, ? to all commands. if  usernames
       consists  of a single *, all known users are affected.  A command can
       be executed when the user has the x bit for it.	The  user  can	type
       input to a window when he has its w bit set and no other user obtains
       a writelock for this window.  Other bits  are  currently  ignored.   To
       withdraw  the writelock from another user in window 2: aclchg username
       -w+w 2.	To allow read-only access to the session: aclchg username -w
       "#".  As soon as a users name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, at and others should
       also be removed or the user may be able	to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  Chacl is a synonym to aclchg.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screens access control list. If currently attached,
       all the users displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the	special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.	If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre
       ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits is any combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"	prede
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  Umask is a synonym to aclumask.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi
       cation  message	can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of % in message is replaced by the number of the win
       dow  in	which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of ^G is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

		   Activity in window %n

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off	for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on	window
       change.	 This  affects	all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".	This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set	to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is off.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or	windows  as  if  it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the current window or cur
       rent display setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  identifier*	then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       identifier%  identifier	is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix /dev/ or /dev/tty  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a # or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the #, * or %-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the # character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a \.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display	is associated with the target windows.	These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the  color
       of  the	text.  If  the	attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the specified
       attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,  the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"	stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground	color and "I" for high-intensity back
       ground color.


	      attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

	      attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this

	      attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program	the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is	the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the	speci
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line	of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis
       played  in  the	current  background color. Otherwise the default back
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of % in message is replaced
       by  the	number	of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of ^G is replaced by the definition for bell in your term
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   Bell in window %n

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").	Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used	to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.	The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or	multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind   windows
		   bind ^k
		   bind k
		   bind K kill
		   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be	avail
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"	to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

		   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screens input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of	the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con
       tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screens  copy  mode  to  do  cursor
       movement.  See  section	"INPUT	TRANSLATION" for a list of default key
       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes	the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screens commands with an arbitrary number  of	args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e. escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and its output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments
       are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
       in  the	future.   Calling  "breaktype"	with no parameter displays the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the	optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example	will  paste  the systems password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells  screen  to  treat  the  input
       characters  between  128  and  159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit
       code is normally the same as ESC followed by  the  corresponding  7-bit
       code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls	the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses	a  default  of
       %3n %t.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four  character  of	set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range 0 to 3 and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a . may be used to indi
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending .  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or	by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was
       invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log  files are always written to the windows
       default directory, not the current directory of the process running  in
       the  window.  You can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer	exists!  Usually  com
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with def....

       If you consider this as the Ex command mode of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its Vi command mode.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"	option
       is  given,  select  the	specified  command class.  See also "bind" and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to	suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the cur
       rent window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode	a  vi-
       like full screen editor is active:
       Movement keys:
	 h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
	 0,  ^	and  $	move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-
	   whitespace character on the line.
	 H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top,	center
	   or bottom line of the window.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
	 | moves to the specified absolute column.
	 w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 C-u  and  C-d	scroll	the display up/down by the specified amount of
	   lines while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half  screen-
	 C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
	 g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
	 % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

	   Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
	   (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple	method	for  a
	   full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

	   The	copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between
	   these marks will be highlighted. Press
	 space to set the first or second mark respectively.
	 Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
	   pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
	   Example:  "C-a  C-[	H  10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the
	   paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	   There are however some keys that act differently than  in  vi.   Vi
	   does  not  allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen
	   does. Press
	 c or C to set the left or right margin  respectively.	If  no	repeat
	   count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
	   c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

	   This moves one to the middle  line  of  the	screen,  moves	in  20
	   columns  left,  marks  the  beginning of the paste buffer, sets the
	   left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and  then
	   marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
	   "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
	 J  joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a new
	   line character (012), lines glued seamless, lines  separated  by  a
	   single  whitespace  and  comma  separated  lines. Note that you can
	   prepend the newline character with a carriage return character,  by
	   issuing a "crlf on".
	 v  is	for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left
	   margin between column 9 and 1. Press
	 a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the  con
	   tents  of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste	buffer
	   to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
	   copy-mode is finished.
	   This example demonstrates how to dump the whole  scrollback	buffer
	   to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x  exchanges  the first mark and the current cursor position. You can
	   use this to adjust an already placed mark.
	 @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the C-a [	command.  If
       it  is  set  to	on,  lines  will  be  separated by the two character
       sequence CR - LF.  Otherwise (default) only LF is used.	When  no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or off. If screen has been compiled with
       option -DDEBUG debugging available and is turned on per	default.  Note
       that  this command only affects debugging output from the main "SCREEN"
       process correctly. Debug output from attacher  processes  can  only  be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same  as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is on.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default  setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is off.  Note that you can use
       the special AN terminal capability if you want to have  a  dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is off.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
       of  the	break,	but  it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g.  4 per second). This is not only system dependant, this also dif
       fers between serial board  drivers.   Calling  "defbreaktype"  with  no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like  the  charset command except that the default setting for new win
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the  "escape"
       except  that  it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser ses
       sion "escape" changes the command character of the calling user,  where
       "defescape"  changes the default command characters for users that will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow command except that the default setting for  new  win
       dows  is  changed. Initial setting is auto.  Specifying "defflow auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is off.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus	line  that  all new windows will get is set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every  window  display
       the  window  number  or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape  charac
       ter is ^E (octal 005) instead of %.  This was done to make a misin
       terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
       parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is off.

       deflogin on|off

       Same  as the login command except that the default setting for new win
       dows is changed. This is initialized with on as distributed (see con

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is off.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis
       plays is changed. Initial setting is off.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special OL terminal capability if you want to have  a  depen
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is off.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning off.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win
       dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is on if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise off.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win
       dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym	to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
       screen.	A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option  (see  also  section	"COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h option
       tells screen to	immediately  close  the  connection  to  the  terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset dont work.


       Shows a tabular listing of  all	currently  connected  user  front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and	the  resulting
       character  is  inserted	in  the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters a", an a-umlaut will  be	inserted.  If  the  first  character
       entered	is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated	as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For exam
       ple the command "bindkey ^K digraph "" enables the user	to  generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur
       rently  active  window  to  the	 file	".termcap"   in   the	users
       "$HOME/.screen"	directory  (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry	is  identical  to  the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each window. For terminfo based systems you will need  to  run  a  con
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a message of
       the day. Typically installed in a global  /etc/screenrc.   The  option
       "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a way to select a termi
       nal  encoding  depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       CP1251,	UTF-8,	ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win

       escape xy

       Set  the  command character to x and the character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y  (similar  to
       the  -e	option).   Each  argument is either a single character, a two-
       character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a  backslash  fol
       lowed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a second character, such as  "\^"  or  "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in the
       window (let us call it "application-process") and screen  itself  (win
       dow)  is  controlled by the filedescriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern
       is basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout  and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be  connected  to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process  out
       put  (fdpats  first  character  is  ! or :) or a pipe symbol (|) is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking exec without arguments shows name and arguments of the	cur
       rently  running	subprocess  in this window. Only one subprocess a time
       can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the kill command will affect it  instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer  to  the postscript file doc/fdpat.ps for a confusing illustra
       tion of all 21 possible combinations. Each  drawing  shows  the	digits
       2,1,0  representing  the  three file descriptors of newcommand. The box
       marked W is the usual pty that has  the	application-process  on  its
       slave  side.   The  box	marked	P  is the secondary pty that now has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace between the word exec and fdpat and  the  command  can  be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit
       ted. A simple | is synonymous for the pattern !..|; the	word  exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by !.


	      exec ... /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates	another  shell in the same window, while the original shell is
       still running. Output of both shells is displayed  and  user  input  is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed	of  the windows tty. If your stty command operates on
       stdout, then add another !.

	      exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special  character  |  is
       needed  to  give  the  user control over the pager although it gets its
       input from the windows process. This works, because  less  listens  on
       stderr  (a  behavior that screen would not expect without the |) when
       its stdin is not a tty.	Less versions newer than  177  fail  miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output  to  both,  the user and the sed command. The sed
       inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to  the	window	output
       seen  by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
       is needed because screen doesnt adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for  this  window.   Without	parameters  it
       cycles  the  current  windows flow-control setting from "automatic" to
       "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on  in  this
       document  for  full details and note, that this is subject to change in
       future releases.  Default is set by defflow.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a  cyclic  way
       so  that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no subcom
       mand is given it defaults to down. up cycles in the opposite order,
       top and bottom go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
       bindings are (j and k as in vi)
	   bind j focus down
	   bind k focus up
	   bind t focus top
	   bind b focus bottom

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and print the character with the 8th bit  stripped.  The  default  (see
       also  "defgr")  is  not	to  process GR switching because otherwise the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file,  or,	if  no
       filename  is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the  command  "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.
       Default is off.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files  will  be  placed.  If	unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screens current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This  command  configures the use and emulation of the terminals hard
       status line. The first form toggles whether screen will use  the  hard
       ware  status  line  to  display	messages. If the flag is set to off,
       these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display  line.
       The default setting is on.

       The  second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesnt have a
       hardstatus line (i.e. the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",  "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
       reserve the last line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses
       screens	message  mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display
       the hardstatus.	If you prepend the word "always" to  the  type	(e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"),  screen  will use the type even if the terminal sup
       ports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  %h  is
       used  as default string, i.e. the stored hardstatus of the current win
       dow (settable via "ESC]0;^G"  or  "ESC_ESC\")  is  dis
       played.	 You  can  customize this to any string you like including the
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out  the  argu
       ment string, the current string is displayed.

       You  can mix the second and third form by providing the string as addi
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec
       ify a width if you want to change both values.	The  -w  option  tells
       screen  to  leave  the  display	size unchanged and just set the window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen  showing  you  all
       the  key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands fol
       lowed by their current bindings.  Subsequent  pages  will  display  the
       custom  commands,  one  command	per key.  Press space when youre done
       reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other  characters  are
       ignored.  If  the  "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS"  section.


       Usually	users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
       command, then hit C-a { and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the prompt character to the left  of  the  cursor.	This
       line  is  pasted into this windows input queue.	Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by  the  visible  window  and  its  scrollback

       hstatus status

       Change the windows hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (ot
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in	searches.  Default  is


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form	"(column,row)"	starting  with
       "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",  the  current  state  of	window
       XON/XOFF  flow  control	is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (+wrap indicates enabled, -wrap  not)
       is  also  shown. The flags ins, org, app, log, mon or nored
       are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,  applica
       tion-keypad  mode,  has	output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in	square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the	string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator	is  in	a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an exec command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process	(shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and  screen  (your	display)  switches  to
       another	window.   When	the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       youre  typing  when  a message appears, because	the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.


       Display	the  disclaimer  page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without	options,  which  should  be  often  enough.   See   also   the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen  does  not
       accept  any  command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile pro
       cesses in  the  windows	may  continue,	as  the  windows  are  in  the
       detached  state.  The  screenlock  program may be changed through the
       environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be  set  in  the  shell  from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the users uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-attach  from  an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called lockterminal.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the windows default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.	This filename can be changed with the logfile command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the  scrollback  history  are  not
       included in the session log.  Default is off.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines	the name the logfiles will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait	before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.	This controls if the window is logged in.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a log in and a log out key.
       E.g. bind I login on and bind O login off will map these keys to be
       C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on"
       for a screen that runs under suid-root.	Use the "deflogin" command  to
       change  the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps  are  turned  "on",  screen adds a string containing the current
       time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output  con
       tinues  and  more  than another two minutes have passed, a second time-
       stamp is added to document the restart of the output.  You  can	change
       this  timeout  with  the  second form of the command. The third form is
       used for customizing the time-stamp string (-- %n:%t -- time-stamp  --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n by default).


       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but dont even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of  timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no arguments
       shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap	used  for  copy/history  mode.
       The  string  is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by
       :. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys C-b and C-
       f to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the  default	binding  for  B  and  F.   The	command  "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command	may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op
       character is @ and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not
       want to use the H or L commands any longer.  As shown in this exam
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a	single	state

       maxwin num

       Set  the  maximum  window  number  screen  will	create. Doesnt affect
       already existing windows. The number may only be decreased.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  windows	input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles	activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window  is  switched  into  the	background,  you  will
       receive	the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an @  in
       the  window-status  display.   Monitoring is initially off for all win

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message  is  cur
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines	the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.	In  multiuser  mode  the  commands acladd, aclchg,
       aclgrp and acldel can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil
       iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS.


       Switch to the next window.  This command  can  be  used	repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out
       put.  If  nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still  doesnt  receive  characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change  the  current  windows  number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows  exchange  their  numbers.	If  no
       argument  is specified, the current window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no
       more  data  will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some	higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to  the	window	displayed  previously.	If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be  refreshed  (as  with  redisplay)
       after  switching  to  the current window. This command only affects the
       current window.	To immediately affect all windows use  the  allpartial
       command.  Default is off, of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
       protect	your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp
       tion in the paste buffer.  Default is none,  this  disables  password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register . is treated  as  the
       paste  buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a sin
       gle register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with  the  copy,
       history	and  readbuf commands.	Other registers can be filled with the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument,  the  contents  of the specified registers is pasted into the
       named destination register rather than the window. If .	is  used  as
       the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a	second
       argument  is  specified	no  current  window is needed. When the source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include  font  information  in  the  paste  buffer.  The
       default	is  not  to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the windows terminal line  and  send  a  break  condition.  See


       Power  detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP sig
       nal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will  result  in  a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a Power detach was per
       formed. It may be used as a replacement for  a  logout  message	or  to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command  can  be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If  cmd	is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capa
       bilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [  5  i,  but
       pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or "cat > /tmp/scrprint".  printcmd without a  command  displays  the
       current	setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write	access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screens input queue.
       If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The  text
       is  parsed  as  if  it had been typed in from the users keyboard. This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi
       nals  the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bind
       ings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when  selecting	window
       no.  4.	Use the empty bind command (as in "bind ^\") to remove a key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the  paste  buffer.   You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also  "buffer
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does  one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or
       one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the  reg
       ister  specified  or entered at the prompt. With two arguments it reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the  screen-exchange  file  into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the systems password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full  redisplay  when  in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save  the  specified  string  to the register key.  The encoding of the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the  "paste"  com


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks	the  screen-exchange  file used by the commands "writebuf" and


       Reset the virtual  terminal  to	its  "power-on"  values.  Useful  when
       strange	settings  (like  scroll regions or graphics character set) are
       left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the  region below or if theres not enough space from the region above.

	      resize +N   increase current region height by N

	      resize -N   decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N   set current region height to N

	      resize  =   make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.	The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and  -fa),
       title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
       option (-T ), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback	option
       (-h  )  may be specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..9 is given,
       the window number n is assigned to the newly  created  window  (or,  if
       this  number  is already in-use, the next available number).  If a com
       mand is specified after "screen", this command (with  the  given  argu
       ments)  is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  Thus,
       if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.	Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the initialization is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll
       back" command and use "C-a i" to view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param
       eter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted  for  an  identifier.
       When  a	new  window  is  established,  the  first  available number is
       assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can  be  activated  by
       "select	0".   The  number of windows is limited at compile-time by the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter.	There are two special  WindowIDs,  "-"
       selects	the  internal blank window and "." selects the current window.
       The latter is useful if used with screens "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit
       ted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY  environ
       ment  variables	still reflects the old name. This may result in confu
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and	value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control, so be careful.	The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if youd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci
       fied in $SHELL. If the command begins with a - character,  the  shell
       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the  discussion  enti
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles	silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  silencewait command or by specifying a number of seconds instead
       of on or off.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows  monitored  for  silence  should  wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec
       onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be	used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written	character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the	running source command file is used to search for the new com
       mand file before screens current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change the way screen does highlighting for text marking  and  printing
       messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modi
       fiers.  The default is currently "=s dd" (standout, default colors).


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis
       played on the new region. Use the "remove" or  the  "only"  command  to
       delete regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether	you  want  to see the copyright notice during startup.
       Default is on, as you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff the string string in the input  buffer  of  the  current  window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.  You can
       not paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for
       key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute  the	user of a display. The command prompts for all parame
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen  password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",	"license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend	screen.  The windows are in the detached state, while screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each windows environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the	local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This wont do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.	vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen	rlogin	othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminals termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap	entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win
       dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  terminfo  command,  which  has  the	same
       effects	as the termcap command.  Two separate commands are provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo
       lation (using %) is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil
       ities have to be used with the terminfo command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the command termcapinfo, which is just a
       shorthand for a pair of termcap and terminfo commands with  identi
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with |s.  Use * to match all terminals and vt* to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated  by
       :s)  to	be  inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry,
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminals	termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. ).  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win
       dow termcaps, and should contain definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs	screen	that  all  terminals that begin with xterm have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they dont really have a status line (no hs - append @ to
       turn entries off).  Note that we assume LP  for	all  terminal  names
       that  start  with "vt", but only if you dont specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined LP  capability  for	all  terminals	that
       begin with vt, and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key	labels
       to each windows termcap entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the @  in  the
       im string is after the =, so it is part of the string).	Having the
       im and ei definitions put into your terminals termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
       each windows termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (were  pretending  it  doesnt  support
       character deletion).

       If  you	would  like  to fully specify each windows termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it  is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as aka in previ
       ous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings	sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the displays encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screens "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes  the  default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but  your	terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a vbell-message is displayed in the status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable vb (terminfo: flash).
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell  is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set	to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.	The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of	screens  visual  bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi
       nals status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns	if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You	can  also  specify a new height if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection. The desired
       window can be selected via the standard movement keys (see  the	"copy"
       command)  and activated via the return key.  If the -b option is given,
       screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the  list,  so
       that  the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the
       order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen  uses
       its internal most-recently-used list.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by  using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses  the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each win
       dow is listed by number with the name of process that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a *;
       the previous window is marked with a -;	all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged	in"  are  marked  with	a  $;  a  background window that has
       received a bell is marked with a !; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an @; a window
       which has output logging turned on is marked with (L); windows  occu
       pied  by  other	users are marked with &; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with Z.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminals
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col
       umn  of	a  line  will  wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is on.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought	of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding  is  specified	the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to  the	same  window at once. Per default, writelock is in auto mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the  first  to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands	two  different
       modes  when  it	detects  a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".	If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.	In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is  set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of  two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  dead windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the  window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call
       ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the	zombie-setting	is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this  as	a  per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily	interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

	      echo ^Hello world from window $WINDOW\\

       where    is an escape, ^ is a literal up-arrow, and \\ turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screens screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow	screen	to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

	 The  normal  window  contains	a  shell (default, if no parameter is
	  given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
	  shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

	 If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec
	  ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
	  to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
	  /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
	  an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
	  line as busy.  An optional parameter	is  allowed  consisting  of  a
	  comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff or -ixon
		 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

	  You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
	  Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame
	  ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependant and
	  may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

	  For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
	  lines in the status line. These may  include	RTS,  CTS,  DTR,
	  DSR,	CD  and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()s and
	  system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
	  the  serial  board.	Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
	  their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
	  When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of	modem  signals
	  is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals CTS or CD are shown in parenthe
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
	  (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
	  be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

	 If the first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the	second	parameter  is
	  expected  to	be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
	  specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
	  to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
	  to communicate with that server.
	  For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec
	  tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA.  The  connection	is in character mode (default: line

	  t	 TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the	remote
		 host.	 Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed oth
		 erwise (see also the command term).

	  w	 NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size  changes.

	  f	 LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control information.
		 (Ignored at the moment.)

	  Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED  and

	  For  telnet  windows,  the  command  break sends the telnet code IAC
	  BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

	  This window type is only available if screen was compiled  with  the
	  BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is % with
       one  exception:	inside	of  a  windows hardstatus ^% (^E) is used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either am or pm

       A      either AM or PM

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With -  quailifier:  up  to  the
	      current  window;	with  +  qualifier: starting with the window
	      after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next %? is displayed  only  if  a  %  escape
	      inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of %?

       =      pad  the	string to the displays width (like TeXs hfill). If a
	      number is specified, pad	to  the  percentage  of  the  windows
	      width.   A  0  qualifier	tells  screen to treat the number as
	      absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
	      absolute	pad position by adding a + qualifier or to pad rela
	      tive to the right margin by using -. The padding truncates the
	      string  if  the specified position lies before the current posi
	      tion. Add the L qualifier to change this.

       <      same as %= but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
	      screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
	      the marked position gets moved to the  specified	percentage  of
	      the  output  area.  (The	area starts from the last absolute pad
	      position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
	      operator.)  The L qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
	      parts with ....

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

	     Substitute with the output of a backtick command.	The  length
	      qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  c  and C escape may be qualified with a 0 to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The 0 qualifier  also  makes
       the  =  escape use absolute positions. The n and = escapes under
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. %3n), D and M can be prefixed with
       L  to  generate long names, w and W also show the window flags if
       L is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
       color  settings.  Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indi
       cator  if  it  can  be  confused with a color desciption. The following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color i to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or back
       ground color dependant on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground color.
       If you dont like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
       same behaviour for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set  before the last change was made (i.e. pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun
	      cated to the available width. The current  window  is  displayed
	      white  on  blue.	 This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number and title and the windows hardstatus, if  one
	      is  set.	Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
	      Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char
       acters,	which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.	You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states fixed on, fixed off and automatic interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT	mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  youre running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not	interrupt  the	display  until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).	This causes the output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the virtual terminals memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can cause  minor
       inaccuracies  in  the  output.	For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off	automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to	interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con
       trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each windows name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis
       tinguish various programs of the same name or to change	the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (kname\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the windows name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set
       ting the windows name to "search|name" and arranging to	have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       : screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the window to the end of the windows shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Heres  how  it  works:	you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (k\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci
       fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,	screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
       it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
       command	name.  If the command name begins with either !, %, or ^
       screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found	name.  This helps csh users get better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Heres some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle > |csh
		   screen 1

       These  commands	would  start  a  shell with the given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt  and  the
       typed command to look something like the following:

	      /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  >   for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert  to
       "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t % |root: su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here  the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previ
       ously  entered  "emacs"	command.   The	window	 status   would   show
       "root:emacs"  during the execution of the command, and revert to simply
       "root:" at its completion.

		   bind o title
		   bind E title ""
		   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesnt have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
       for  a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
       auto-titles current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
       current windows title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con
       trol  characters  as  part  of the prompts length.  If these invisible
       characters arent a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.	One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

	      set prompt=^[[0000m^[k^[\%

       The escape-sequence "[0000m" not  only  normalizes	the  character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac
       ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will  probably  want  to  echo  the	escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND=echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"

       (I used "134" to output a \ because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually	screen	tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the	emula
       tion  may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the appli
       cations that some of the features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it  first
       looks  for an entry named "screen.", where  is the contents
       of your $TERM variable.	If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or  "screen-w"	if  the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesnt support an impor
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named "screen.") in  which
       this  capability  has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the	correct  term
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win

       The actual set  of  capabilities  supported  by	the  virtual  terminal
       depends	on  the  capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does not support  underscore  mode,
       screen  does  not  put the us and ue capabilities into the windows
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely
       scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor  addressing	(in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim  into each windows $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
       full terminal definition, or a filename	where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean G0 capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup
       ported:	lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.	When a virtual	termi
       nal  is	created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the G0 capability is present, screen evaluates  the
       capabilities  S0, E0, and C0 if present. S0 is the sequence the
       terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics	character  set	rather
       than  SI.   E0  is the corresponding replacement for SO. C0 gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics  mode.	This string is built like the acsc terminfo capabil

       When the po and pf capabilities are present in the terminals term
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can send output to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter
       minal, while all other windows are still active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled	and  disabled  again  for  each  chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs running in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer	simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting PRIN while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the displays hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win
       dows  hardstatus  line. If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed	  with	 the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       "ESC_ESC\". As a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
       "ESC]0..2;^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir
       tual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented  by  the  physical
       terminal.  For instance, dl (delete line) is only put into the $TERM
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate	screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p 		  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn = 6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with Es

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device Control  String.   Outputs  a	string
				  directly to the host terminal without inter

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
				  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
				  multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
				  The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
				  the access control list. Use	"addacl  :win
				  dow:	-rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
				  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H		  Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn J		  Erase in Display

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K		  Erase in Line

	     Pn = None or 0	  From Cursor to End of Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X		  Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn 		 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps = None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black


		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn = None or 0	  Clear Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l	  Reset Mode

	     Ps = 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

		  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

		  ?1047 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

		  ?1049 	  Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize the window to	Ph  lines  and	Pw
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	 VT220	 Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
       sequence  of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
       on the users keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
       Screen  has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to
       map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For  stan
       dard  VT100  emulation  the  command will always insert a string in the
       input buffer of the window (see also command stuff in the  command  ta
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible	to  bind  com
       mands  to the termcap name of the keys.	Screen will insert the correct
       binding after each  reattach.  See  the	bindkey  command  for  further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the com
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name 	 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku 	 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd 	 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr 	 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl 	 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function key 0	     k0 	 stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1	     k1 	 stuff \033OP
       Function key 2	     k2 	 stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3	     k3 	 stuff \033OR
       Function key 4	     k4 	 stuff \033OS
       Function key 5	     k5 	 stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6	     k6 	 stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7	     k7 	 stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8	     k8 	 stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9	     k9 	 stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10	     k; 	 stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11	     F1 	 stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12	     F2 	 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh 	 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH 	 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI 	 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD 	 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP 	 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN 	 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0 	     f0 	 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1 	     f1 	 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2 	     f2 	 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3 	     f3 	 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4 	     f4 	 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5 	     f5 	 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6 	     f6 	 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7 	     f7 	 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8 	     f8 	 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9 	     f9 	 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad + 	     f+ 	 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad - 	     f- 	 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad * 	     f* 	 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad / 	     f/ 	 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad = 	     fq 	 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad . 	     f. 	 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad , 	     f, 	 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe 	 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog
       nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can place
       these capabilities in your termcap entries (in /etc/termcap)  or  use
       them  with the commands termcap, terminfo and termcapinfo in your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (magic margins). Note
		    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
		    standard xn instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: \E[8;%d;%dt.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesnt need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
		    to	the  application.  Same as flow off. The opposite of
		    this capability is nx.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection  sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  G0 to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset G0 back to standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font 0. See the
		    ac capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the	autonuke  command  for	more

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the obuflimit command
		    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the encoding	com
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
		    This capability will almost always	be  set  to  \E[3%dm
		    (\E[3%p1%dm on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as AF, but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
		    on	the current font. More details follow in the next sec

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
		    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea
       ture  if  you  want  to	work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac
       ters over several national language font pages.