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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

       rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but
       has many more options and uses  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  to
       greatly	speed  up  file  transfers  when the destination file is being

       The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the dif
       ferences between two sets of files across the network connection, using
       an efficient  checksum-search  algorithm  described  in	the  technical
       report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting  an  rsync  daemon  directly	via  TCP.   The   remote-shell
       transport  is  used  whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.	Contacting  an
       rsync  daemon directly happens when the source or destination path con
       tains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR when
       an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section for an exception to this  latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to ls -l.

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already	exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in archive mode, which ensures that sym
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning copy the contents of this directory
       as  opposed  to	copy  the  directory  by name, but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that  host  and  module references dont require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directorys contents into /dest:

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination dont have a : in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote	host  involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.	Some examples:

	      rsync host::modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2 /dest

       This  would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.  Each
       additional arg must include the same modname/  prefix  as  the  first
       one,  and  must	be  preceded  by a single space.  All other spaces are
       assumed to be a part of the filenames.

	      rsync -av host:dir1/file1 dir2/file2 /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.   This
       word-splitting  is  done  by the remote shell, so if it doesnt work it
       means that the remote shell isnt configured to split its args based on
       whitespace  (a  very  rare  setting,  but not unknown).	If you need to
       transfer a filename that contains whitespace,  youll  need  to  either
       escape  the  whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand,
       or use wildcards in place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

	      rsync -av host:file\ name\ with\ spaces /dest
	      rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This latter example assumes that your shell  passes  through  unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about no match, put the name in quotes.

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using  TCP port 873.	(This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in  this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the path is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci
	      fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named src:

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxys configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then  spawning a single-use daemon server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfers data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from localhost.)

       From  the users perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	 (Setting  the	RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that  requires  user-based  authentication).   This
       means  that  you  must give the -l user option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  ssh-user will be used at the ssh level; the rsync-user will be
       used to log-in to the module.

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon that will han
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5)  man  page
       that  is  the  config  file  for  the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con

       If  youre  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wifes home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude *~ samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isnt very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my old and new ftp sites with the com

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H, -A)
	    --no-OPTION 	    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive 	    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    dont send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links     only unsafe symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p) [non-standard]
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories when preserving times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    show what would have been transferred
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    dont cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    dont delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    dont transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    dont transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    dont map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=TIME	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    dont skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only 	    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter=dir-merge /.rsync-filter
				    repeated: --filter=- .rsync-filter
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    dont exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT 	    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what were doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
	    --list-only 	    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach 	    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT 	    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the log file setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the log format setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync uses the GNU long options	package.  Many	of  the  command  line
       options	have  two  variants,  one short and one long.  These are shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       =  for  options	that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be
       used instead.

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options  available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	For backward-compatibility with older versions
	      of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
	      -v  will	give you information about what files are being trans
	      ferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v  flags  will  give
	      you  information	on  what  files are being skipped and slightly
	      more information at the end. More than two -v flags should  only
	      be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
	      done using a default --out-format of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
	      just  the  name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
	      points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men
	      tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding  "%i"  to	the  --out-format setting), the output (on the
	      client) increases to mention all items that are changed  in  any
	      way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
	      from  the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync
	      from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client
	      at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of  modules
	      that  the daemon sends in response to the rsync host:: request
	      (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally	rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
	      size and have the same  modification  time-stamp.   This	option
	      turns  off  this quick check behavior, causing all files to be

	      Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already  the
	      same  size  and  have the same modification time-stamp. With the
	      --size-only option, files will not be transferred if  they  have
	      the  same  size,	regardless  of	timestamp. This is useful when
	      starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which
	      may not preserve timestamps exactly.

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the  modify-window
	      value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This forces the sender to checksum every regular	file  using  a
	      128-bit MD4 checksum.  It does this during the initial file-sys
	      tem scan as it builds the  list  of  all	available  files.  The
	      receiver	then  checksums its version of each file (if it exists
	      and it has the same size	as  its  sender-side  counterpart)  in
	      order  to  decide  which	files  need  to be updated: files with
	      either a changed size or a changed  checksum  are  selected  for
	      transfer.   Since  this  whole-file checksumming of all files on
	      both sides of the connection occurs in addition to the automatic
	      checksum verifications that occur during a files transfer, this
	      option can be quite slow.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
	      correctly  reconstructed	on  the receiving side by checking its
	      whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer veri
	      fication	has nothing to do with this options before-the-trans
	      fer Does this file need to be updated? check.

       -a, --archive
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying  you
	      want  recursion  and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
	      being a notable omission).  The  only  exception	to  the  above
	      equivalence  is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi
	      ply-linked  files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with "no-".	Not all options may be prefixed with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other	options  (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify either the short or the long option name after
	      the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but dont want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path  names	speci
	      fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you want to send several different directories at the same
	      time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
	      remote machine  the full path name is preserved.	To limit  the
	      amount  of  path	information  that  is  sent, you have a couple
	      options:	(1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning
	      with  2.6.7),  you  can insert a dot and a slash into the source
	      path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	(2) For older rsync versions, you  would  need
	      to  use  a  chdir  to  limit the source path.  For example, when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
	      that  the  cd command doesnt remain in effect for future com
	      mands.)  If youre pulling files, use this idiom (which  doesnt
	      work with an rsync daemon):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
	      option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
	      directories from the source names are not included in the trans
	      fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged if they exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ
	      ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on one side of the
	      transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

	      For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer  the  file  path/foo/file,  the  directories
	      path  and  path/foo are implied when --relative is used.	If
	      path/foo is a symlink to bar on the destination system,  the
	      receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete path/foo, recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
	      path/foo/file using the existing path  elements,	which  means
	      that  the file ends up being created in path/bar.  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      In  a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,	if  the  transfer   of
	      path/foo/file  is requested and path/foo is a symlink on the
	      sending side,  running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would  cause
	      rsync  to  transform  path/foo  on  the receiving side into an
	      identical symlink, and then attempt to transfer path/foo/file,
	      which  might  fail  if the duplicated symlink did not point to a
	      directory on the receiving side.	 Another  way  to  avoid  this
	      sending  of  a  symlink  as  an  implied	directory  is  to  use
	      --copy-unsafe-links, or  --copy-dirlinks	(both  of  which  also
	      affect symlinks in the rest of the transfer  see their descrip
	      tions for full details).

       -b, --backup
	      With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what (if any) suffix  gets  appended  using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   dont  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      protect filter-rule for the backup suffix to the	end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre
	      viously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note  that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      *, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this tells rsync to
	      store all backups in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.  You can addi
	      tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth
	      erwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

	      This option allows you to override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modify time equal
	      to the source files, it will be updated if the sizes  are  dif

	      In  the current implementation of --update, a difference of file
	      format between the sender and receiver is always	considered  to
	      be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the
	      objects.	In other words, if the source has  a  directory  or  a
	      symlink  where  the  destination	has a file, the transfer would
	      occur regardless of the timestamps.  This might  change  in  the
	      future  (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list if you
	      have an opinion).

	      This causes rsync not to create a new copy of the file and  then
	      move  it	into place.  Instead rsync will overwrite the existing
	      file, meaning that the rsync algorithm cant accomplish the full
	      amount of network reduction it might be able to otherwise (since
	      it does not yet try to sort data	matches).   One  exception  to
	      this  is if you combine the option with --backup, since rsync is
	      smart enough to use the backup file as the basis	file  for  the

	      This  option  is	useful for transfer of large files with block-
	      based changes or appended data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      WARNING: The files data will be in an inconsistent state during
	      the transfer (and possibly afterward if the transfer gets inter
	      rupted), so you should not use this option to update files  that
	      are  in  use.   Also  note that rsync will be unable to update a
	      file in-place that is not writable by the receiving user.

	      This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
	      file  on	the  sending side.  If that is not true, the file will
	      fail the	checksum  test,  and  the  resend  will  do  a	normal
	      --inplace  update to correct the mismatched data.  Only files on
	      the receiving side that are shorter than the corresponding  file
	      on  the  sending	side (as well as new files) are sent.  Implies
	      --inplace, but does  not	conflict  with	--sparse  (though  the
	      --sparse	option	will  be  auto-disabled  if  a	resend	of the
	      already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending	side  to  include  any	directories  that  are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directorys contents are not
	      copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
	      referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
	      of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo
	      ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, youll need to	spec
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand  -K  in that case, the -L option will still have the
	      side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of  symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out
	      side  the  copied  tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give  unex
	      pected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
	      directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you  dont  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
	      a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
	      directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receivers symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory foo that con
	      tains a file file, but foo is a symlink to  directory  bar
	      on  the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink foo, recreates it as a  directory,  and  receives  the
	      file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the symlink and file ends up in bar.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
	      and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
	      Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
	      treated as though they were separate files.

	      Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of  the
	      link are in the list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
	      This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
	      permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
	      the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o      Existing files (including	updated  files)  retain  their
		     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o      New files get their normal permission bits set  to  the
		     source  files  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
		     directorys default  permissions  (either  the  receiving
		     processs  umask,  or  the	permissions specified via the
		     destination directorys default ACL), and  their  special
		     permission  bits  disabled except in the case where a new
		     directory inherits a setgid bit from  its	parent	direc

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsyncs behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy  utili
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give  destination files (both old and new) the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give new files the destina
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is  off  and  use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures	that  all  non-masked bits get
	      enabled).  If youd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
	      type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line in the file	~/.popt  (this	defines  the  -s  option,  and
	      includes	--no-g	to  use  the  default group of the destination

		 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could then use this new option in a  command	such  as  this

		 rsync -asv src/ dest/

	      (Caveat:	make  sure  that -a does not follow -s, or it will re-
	      enable the "--no-*" options.)

	      The preservation of the destinations setgid bit  on  newly-cre
	      ated  directories  when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
	      Older rsync versions erroneously	preserved  the	three  special
	      permission  bits	for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
	      while overriding the  destinations  setgid  bit  setting	on  a
	      newly-created  directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to
	      the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older  (or  non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
	      mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
	      executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be executable if at least one x
	      is turned on in its permissions.	When an  existing  destination
	      files  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  files  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o      To  make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     x permissions.

	      o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  x	per
		     mission  that has a corresponding r permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  This nonstandard option only works
	      if the remote rsync also supports it.  --acls implies --perms.

	      Note also that an optimization of the ACL-sending protocol  used
	      by  this	version makes it incompatible with sending files to an
	      older ACL-enabled rsync unless  you  double  the	--acls	option
	      (e.g. -AA).  This doubling is not needed when pulling files from
	      an older rsync.

	      This option tells rsync to apply	one  or  more  comma-separated
	      chmod  strings to the permission of the files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as though it was the  permissions
	      that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it with a D, or specify an item
	      that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  F.
	      For example:


	      It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
	      additional option is just appended to the  list  of  changes  to

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result
	      ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the	trans

       -o, --owner
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source file, but only if the  receiv
	      ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
	      option to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).	 With
	      out  this  option,  the owner is set to the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
	      default,	but  may fall back to using the ID number in some cir
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus

       -g, --group
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  pro
	      gram  is	not  running  as  the super-user (or if --no-super was
	      specified), only groups that the invoking user on the  receiving
	      side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group is set to the default group of the invoking  user  on  the
	      receiving side.

	      The  preservation  of  group information will associate matching
	      names by default, but may fall back to using the	ID  number  in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block	device
	      files  to  the  remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This
	      option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
	      super-user and --super is not specified.

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is not used, the optimization that  excludes  files  that
	      have  not  been  modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though the rsync algo
	      rithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files havent
	      actually changed, youre much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi
	      fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasnt run by the super-user.	These
	      activities include: preserving users  via  the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just the current users groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and  copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isnt being running as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
	      Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
	      space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because its
	      not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE:  Dont  use	this option when the destination is a Solaris
	      tmpfs filesystem. It doesnt seem to handle  seeks  over  null
	      regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This  tells  rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will
	      just report the actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
	      the  whole  file	is  sent  as-is  instead.  The transfer may be
	      faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially  when  the  disk  is  actually	a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des
	      tination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This  does  not limit the users ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsyncs  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a bind mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
	      is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore  existing  directores,  or
	      nothing would get done).	See also --existing.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
	      (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
	      have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that arent on the sending side), but  only  for  the
	      directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directorys contents (e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files parent
	      directory.  Files that  are  excluded  from  transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is in effect, but only for  directo
	      ries whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
	      good idea to run first using the --dry-run option  (-n)  to  see
	      what  files would be deleted to make sure important files arent

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
	      on  the  destination.   You   can   override   this   with   the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN   options	without   conflict,   as    well    as
	      --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none	of  the  --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified,	rsync  will   currently   choose   the
	      --delete-before  algorithm.  A future version may change this to
	      choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also  --delete-after.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  This is the default if --delete  or
	      --delete-excluded  is specified without one of the --delete-WHEN
	      options.	See --delete (which is implied) for  more  details  on

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	 However,  it  does  introduce a delay
	      before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a faster	method
	      than choosing the before- or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
	      only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
	      (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      after the transfer has completed.  This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu
	      sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when using --delete-after, and  it  used	to  be	non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo
	      ries (NUM must be non-zero).  This is useful when mirroring very
	      large trees to prevent disasters.

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      The suffixes are as  follows:  K	(or  KiB)  is  a  kibibyte
	      (1024),  M  (or  MiB) is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and G (or
	      GiB) is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the  multi
	      plier  to  be  1000  instead  of	1024, use KB, MB, or GB.
	      (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either +1 or -1, the value will be offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:   --max-size=1.5mb-1	is    1499999	 bytes,    and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This forces the block size used in  the  rsync  algorithm  to  a
	      fixed  value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each
	      file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to choose	an  alternative  remote  shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and remote
	      copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      NECTION above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back
	      slashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam

		  -e ssh -p 2234
		  -e ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"

	      (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
	      default		remote-shells		path		(e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM is run
	      with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence youd care to run, so long as it does not cor
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative  option.   For

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
	      that you often dont want to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      the  same  algorithm that CVS uses to determine if a file should
	      be ignored.

	      The exclude list is initialized to:

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

	      then  files  listed  in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
	      cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsyncs filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If youre combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
	      note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on  the  command-
	      line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec
	      ified explicitly.  If  you  want	to  control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
	      the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of	--fil
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either  on  your  command-line  or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
	      import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer
	      tain files from the list of files to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
	      like to build up the list of files to exclude.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter=dir-merge /.rsync-filter

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
	      rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter=exclude .rsync-filter

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this

	      This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in  the  file  and  lines	starting  with	; or # are
	      ignored.	If FILE is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full  rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
	      a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
	      lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ;	or  #  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
	      to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

	      o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o      The  --archive  (-a)  options  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

	      o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of the --files-from option on  the  command-
		     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
		     --no-R and all other options).

	      The  file  names that are read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir  any leading slashes are  removed	and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  bin  (or  even  /bin),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
	      host.  If it contains bin/  (note  the  trailing	slash),  the
	      immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file  this  began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
	      that dirs entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file	it does not force the
	      duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
	      host instead of the local host if you specify a host: in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of : to mean use the
	      remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
	      file that was located on the remote src host.

       -0, --from0
	      This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  (\0) character, not a NL, CR, or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
	      It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names  read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving  side.	 The default behavior is to create each tempo
	      rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination

	      This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
	      does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the  transfer.	 In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
	      directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
	      associated destination file,  but  instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
	      destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
	      this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of  disk	space,	you  may  wish	to   combine   it   with   the
	      --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await
	      ing  the	end of the transfer.  If you dont have enough room to
	      duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
	      another way to tell rsync that you arent overly concerned about
	      disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will  use  the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify
	      ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
	      looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi
	      larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
	      potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
	      machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  senders	file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
	      that differs only in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
	      a flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
	      unchanged  file.	If a match is not found, a basis file from one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The  files
	      must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the  files	to  be	linked
	      together.  An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans

	      Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync  versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
	      being transmitted  something that is useful over a slow connec

	      Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in  the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the --com
	      press option is implied.

	      With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to	deter
	      mine  what  ownership  to  give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
	      match on the destination system, then the numeric  ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments on the
	      use chroot setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot setting affects rsyncs ability to look up the
	      names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
	      specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
	      rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format=%i %n%L.   If  you  repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
	      receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11	letters  long.
	      The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o      A	>  means that a file is being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o      A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o      A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have attributes that are being modified).

	      The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other letters in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
	      that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
	      being updated or a . for no change.  Three exceptions to	this
	      are:  (1)  a newly created item replaces each letter with a +,
	      (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
	      unknown attribute replaces each letter with a ? (this can hap
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o      A	c means the checksum of the file is different and will
		     be updated by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

	      o      A s means the size of the file is different and  will  be
		     updated by the file transfer.

	      o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
		     updated to the senders  value  (requires  --times).   An
		     alternate	value  of T means that the time will be set to
		     the transfer time, which happens  anytime	a  symlink  is
		     transferred,  or  when  a	file  or device is transferred
		     without --times.

	      o      A p means the permissions are  different  and  are  being
		     updated to the senders value (requires --perms).

	      o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the senders value (requires --owner and super-user priv

	      o      A	g means the group is different and is being updated to
		     the senders value (requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o      The u slot is reserved for reporting update (access) time
		     changes (a feature that is not yet released).

	      o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o      The x slot is reserved for reporting  extended  attribute
		     changes (a feature that is not yet released).

	      One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the %i
	      will output the string *deleting for each item that  is  being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape
	      characters, see the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf man

	      Specifying this option will mention each file,  dir,  etc.  that
	      gets  updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recre
	      ated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In  addition,  if
	      the  itemize-changes  escape (%i) is included in the string, the
	      logging of names increases to mention any item that  is  changed
	      in  any  way  (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
	      See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output
	      of "%i".

	      The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
	      --out-format without --verbose if you like, or you can  override
	      the format of its per-file output using this option.

	      Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a files trans
	      fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which  case  the  logging  is  done at the end of the files
	      transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified,	rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
	      being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
	      of course, by the out-format output).

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested  for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as a client option, transfer log
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Heres a example command that requests the remote	side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
	      the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to  tell  how  effective  the  rsync
	      algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o      Number  of  files	is  the  count	of all files (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,

	      o      Number  of files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via the rsync algorithm, which does not
		     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any size  for  directories
		     or  special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the transferred files.

	      o      Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
		     updated files.

	      o      Matched  data  is	how much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
		     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
		     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
		     modern  rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

	      o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o      Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync  received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  Non-message bytes  means  that  we  dont
		     count  the  bytes	for  a verbose message that the server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters  unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test them to see if theyre
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard
	      less of this options setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
	      backslash  (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig
	      its.  For example, a newline would output as \#012.  A literal
	      backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified once, these  units  are  K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is  interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the	--par
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which should
	      make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much  faster.

	      A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
	      (instead	of  writing  it  out to the destination file).	On the
	      next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
	      to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par
	      tial-dir	file  that  is	found for a file that is being updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending	files  without
	      using the incremental rsync algorithm).

	      Rsync  will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir
	      not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
	      (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
	      the partial-directory in the destination files  directory  when
	      needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
	      an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
	      above   --partial-dir   option   would  add  the	equivalent  of
	      "--exclude=.rsync-partial/" at  the  end	of  any  other	filter

	      If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsyncs  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a risk filter rule, e.g.  -f R
	      .rsync-partial/.	(Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur
	      ing unless you dont need rsync to use any of the left-over par
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by  other
	      users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID /tmp.

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
	      you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then  just  use  the  -P  option  to turn on the use of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial  option  does  not look for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-configs  refuse  options  set
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to  disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.   This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  .~tmp~
	      in  each	files  destination directory, but if youve specified
	      the --partial-dir option, that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
	      what  you  can do if you wnat rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and

	      This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso
	      lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they cant be renamed into

	      See also the atomic-rsync perl script in the support  subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc
	      tories  from  the  file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is  recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files  using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being deleted  (because  an  exclude
	      hides source files and protects destination files).

	      You  can	prevent  the pruning of certain empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global protect filter.  For instance,
	      this  option would ensure that the directory emptydir was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter protect emptydir/

	      Heres an example that copies all .pdf  files  in	a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include=*.pdf -f hide,! */ src/ dest

	      If you didnt want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include=*/  --exclude=*"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user  something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasnt already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the senders file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
	      of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

	      These  statistics  can be misleading if the incremental transfer
	      algorithm is in use.  For example, if the senders file consists
	      of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
	      literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses
	      sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      This option allows you to provide  a  password  in  a  file  for
	      accessing  a  remote rsync daemon. Note that this option is only
	      useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in	trans
	      port,  not  when using a remote shell as the transport. The file
	      must not be world readable. It should contain just the  password
	      as a single line.

	      This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option is  inferred  if  there  is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a  file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
	      local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),  or
	      (3)  to  avoid  the  automatically  added  "-r --exclude=/*/*"
	      options that rsync usually uses as a  compatibility  kluge  when
	      generating  a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
	      a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into mul
	      tiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg with
	      out using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes  per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync  transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no

	      Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the BATCH MODE section  for
	      details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
	      destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
	      means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this media fills to capacity before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
	      changes (as long as you dont mind a partially updated  destina
	      tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data	to  be
	      diverted	from  the sender into the batch file without having to
	      flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
	      remote, and thus cant write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen
	      erated by --write-batch.	If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
	      read  from  standard  input.   See  the BATCH MODE section for

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file (assuming you cant upgrade the	rsync
	      on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      Set the MD4 checksum seed to  the  integer  NUM.	 This  4  byte
	      checksum	seed  is  included in each block and file MD4 checksum
	      calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated  by  the
	      server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used
	      to set a specific checksum seed, which is  useful  for  applica
	      tions  that  want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the
	      case where the user wants a more	random	checksum  seed.   Note
	      that  setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time()
	      for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.   See  also the address global option in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes  per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
	      can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
	      client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This specifies an alternate config file than the default.   This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a	remote
	      shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
	      case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory	(typi
	      cally $HOME).

	      When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
	      detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
	      required	when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
	      useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
	      or AIXs System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom
	      mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also  the	port
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to use the given log-file
	      name instead of using the log file setting in the config file.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
	      string instead of using the log format setting in  the  config
	      file.   It  also enables transfer logging unless the string is
	      empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae
	      mons verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the max verbosity setting in the modules con
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock
	      ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an address
	      already  in  use error when nothing else is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ
	      ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans
       fer (include) and which files to  skip  (exclude).   The  rules	either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a	file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of  include/exclude  pat
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is  not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your	choice	of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the , separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from  dele
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a #.

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule  parsing as described above  they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a ! token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with -  (dash,  space)  or  +    (plus,
       space),	then  the  rule will be interpreted as if +  (for an include
       option) or -  (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the +,
       -, etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are  going	to  be	trans
       ferred.	These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu
	      lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is similar to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match  a  file  named
	      foo  at  either the root of the transfer (for a global rule)
	      or in the merge-files directory (for a per-directory rule).  An
	      unqualified  foo would match any file or directory named foo
	      anywhere in the tree because the	algorithm  is  applied	recur
	      sively  from  the top down; it behaves as if each path component
	      gets a turn at being the end of the file name.  Even  the  unan
	      chored sub/foo would match at any point in the hierarchy where
	      a foo was found within a directory named sub.  See the  sec
	      tion on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion
	      of how to specify a pattern that matches	at  the  root  of  the

       o      if  the  pattern	ends with a / then it will only match a direc
	      tory, not a file, link, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
	      matching	by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
	      wildcard characters: *, ?, and [ .

       o      a  *  matches  any  non-empty  path  component  (it  stops  at

       o      use ** to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ? matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   [   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild
	      card  character,	but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
	      **,  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesnt contain a / or a
	      **, then it is matched only against the final component of the
	      filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  full	filename  can actually be any portion of a path from
	      the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing dir_name/*** will match both the directory  (as  if
	      dir_name/  had been specified) and all the files in the direc
	      tory (as if dir_name/** had been specified).   (This  behavior
	      is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponents
       full name (e.g. to include /foo/bar/baz the subcomponents /foo  and
       /foo/bar must not be excluded).	The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync  finds	the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not  descend
       through	that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing * rule.	 For  instance,  this  wont

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory some is excluded by the *
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  some  or
       some/path directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  +	*/  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the   -   *   rule),   and	 perhaps   use	 the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      - *.o would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      - /foo would exclude a file (or directory) named	foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      - foo/ would exclude any directory named foo

       o      -  /foo/*/bar would exclude any file named bar which is at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root	direc

       o      -  /foo/**/bar  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root	direc

       o      The  combination of + */, + *.c, and - * would include all
	      directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  +  foo/,  + foo/bar.c, and - * would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the *)

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two	kinds of merged files  single-instance (.) and per-
       directory (:).  A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the .
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan  every  directory
       that  it  traverses  for  the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc
       tory  rule  files must be created on the sending side because it is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side
       if you want them to affect what files dont get deleted (see PER-DIREC
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on n, w, and  -,  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file
	      name is provided, .cvsignore is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      dir-merge,e  .rules is like dir-merge .rules and - .rules.

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited  by  subdirecto

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
	      instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so - foo + bar is parsed  as  two  rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasnt also disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for the + or -
	      rules (below) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
	      the  file  default  to  having that modifier set.  For instance,
	      merge,-/ .excl would treat the contents of .excl as  absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while  dir-merge,s .filt and :sC would each
	      make all their per-directory rules apply	only  on  the  sending

       The following modifiers are accepted after a + or -:

       o      A  / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      -/  /etc/passwd  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
	      transfer was sending files from the /etc	directory,  and  -/
	      subdir/foo would always exclude foo when it is in a dir named
	      subdir, even if foo is at the root of the current  transfer.

       o      A  !  specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
	      the pattern fails to match.  For instance, -! */ would exclude
	      all non-directories.

       o      A  C  is	used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  -C.   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
	      from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
	      both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the n modifier  was  used.
       Each  subdirectorys  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule (!)
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-files directory, so
       a pattern /foo would only match the file foo in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Heres an example filter	file  which  youd  specify  via  --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also turns the .rules filename into a	per-
       directory  filter  file.   All  rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par
       ent  dirs  from	that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a	common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=: /.rsync-filter

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the modules path.)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=: ../../.rsync-filter /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=: .rsync-filter /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for .rsync-filter in / and
       /src  before  the  normal  scan	begins	looking  for  the  file   in
       /src/path  and  its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for  the  .rsync-filter  files  in	each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a .cvsignore in your patterns,
       you should use the rule :C, which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C)  options  inclusion	of  the  per-
       directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed into your rules by putting the
       :C wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add  the  dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your
       other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line  rules).
       For example:

	      cat < out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu
	      late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

	      The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
	      default  shell  used  as	the transport for rsync.  Command line
	      options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
	      run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
	      set, the username defaults to nobody.

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the users default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at http://rsync.samba.org/

       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only	run  an  rsync	command.   For
       instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam
       ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPY
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Thanks  to  Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell
       and David Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and testing  of	rsync.
       Ive probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial  thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W. Schultz.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are  available  at

				  6 Nov 2006			      rsync(1)

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