RRDGRAPH_RPN(1) rrdtool RRDGRAPH_RPN(1)
rrdgraph_rpn - About RPN Math in rrdtool graph
RPN expression:=vnameoperatorvalue[,RPN expression]
If you have ever used a traditional HP calculator you already know RPN.
The idea behind RPN is that you have a stack and push your data onto
this stack. Whenever you execute an operation, it takes as many ele
ments from the stack as needed. Pushing is done implicitly, so whenever
you specify a number or a variable, it gets pushed onto the stack auto
At the end of the calculation there should be one and only one value
left on the stack. This is the outcome of the function and this is
what is put into the vname. For CDEF instructions, the stack is pro
cessed for each data point on the graph. VDEF instructions work on an
entire data set in one run. Note, that currently VDEF instructions only
support a limited list of functions.
This will set variable "maximum" which you now can use in the rest of
your RRD script.
This means: push variable mydata, push the number 8, execute the oper
ator *. The operator needs two elements and uses those to return one
value. This value is then stored in mydatabits. As you may have
guessed, this instruction means nothing more than mydatabits = mydata *
8. The real power of RPN lies in the fact that it is always clear in
which order to process the input. For expressions like "a = b + 3 * 5"
you need to multiply 3 with 5 first before you add b to get a. However,
with parentheses you could change this order: "a = (b + 3) * 5". In
RPN, you would do "a = b, 3, +, 5, *" without the need for parentheses.
LT, LE, GT, GE, EQ, NE
Pop two elements from the stack, compare them for the selected con
dition and return 1 for true or 0 for false. Comparing an unknown
or an infinite value will always result in 0 (false).
Pop one element from the stack, compare this to unknown respec
tively to positive or negative infinity. Returns 1 for true or 0
Pops three elements from the stack. If the element popped last is
0 (false), the value popped first is pushed back onto the stack,
otherwise the value popped second is pushed back. This does,
indeed, mean that any value other than 0 is considered to be true.
Example: "A,B,C,IF" should be read as "if (A) then (B) else (C)"
Pops two elements from the stack and returns the smaller or larger,
respectively. Note that infinite is larger than anything else. If
one of the input numbers is unknown then the result of the opera
tion will be unknown too.
Pops two elements from the stack and uses them to define a range.
Then it pops another element and if it falls inside the range, it
is pushed back. If not, an unknown is pushed.
The range defined includes the two boundaries (so: a number equal
to one of the boundaries will be pushed back). If any of the three
numbers involved is either unknown or infinite this function will
always return an unknown
Example: "CDEF:a=alpha,0,100,LIMIT" will return unknown if alpha is
lower than 0 or if it is higher than 100.
+, -, *, /, %
Add, subtract, multiply, divide, modulo
SIN, COS, LOG, EXP, SQRT
Sine and cosine (input in radians), log and exp (natural loga
rithm), square root.
Arctangent (output in radians).
Arctangent of y,x components (output in radians). This pops one
element from the stack, the x (cosine) component, and then a sec
ond, which is the y (sine) component. It then pushes the arctan
gent of their ratio, resolving the ambiguity between quadrants.
Example: "CDEF:angle=Y,X,ATAN2,RAD2DEG" will convert "X,Y" compo
nents into an angle in degrees.
Round down or up to the nearest integer.
Convert angle in degrees to radians, or radians to degrees.
Pop one element from the stack. This is the count of items to be
sorted (or reversed). The top count of the remaining elements are
then sorted (or reversed) in place on the stack.
will compute the average of the values v1 to v6 after removing the
smallest and largest.
Pop one element (count) from the stack. Now pop count elements and
build the average, ignoring all UNKNOWN values in the process.
Create a "sliding window" average of another data series.
This will create a half-hour (1800 second) sliding window average
of x. The average is essentially computed as shown here:
Value at sample (t0) will be the average between (t0-delay) and (t0)
Value at sample (t1) will be the average between (t1-delay) and (t1)
Value at sample (t2) will be the average between (t2-delay) and (t2)
Pushes an unknown value on the stack
Pushes a positive or negative infinite value on the stack. When
such a value is graphed, it appears at the top or bottom of the
graph, no matter what the actual value on the y-axis is.
Pushes an unknown value if this is the first value of a data set or
otherwise the result of this CDEF at the previous time step. This
allows you to do calculations across the data. This function can
not be used in VDEF instructions.
Pushes an unknown value if this is the first value of a data set or
otherwise the result of the vname variable at the previous time
step. This allows you to do calculations across the data. This
function cannot be used in VDEF instructions.
Pushes the number 1 if this is the first value of the data set, the
number 2 if it is the second, and so on. This special value allows
you to make calculations based on the position of the value within
the data set. This function cannot be used in VDEF instructions.
Time inside RRDtool is measured in seconds since the epoch. The
epoch is defined to be "Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 UTC 1970".
Pushes the current time on the stack.
Pushes the time the currently processed value was taken at onto the
Takes the time as defined by TIME, applies the time zone offset
valid at that time including daylight saving time if your OS sup
ports it, and pushes the result on the stack. There is an elabo
rate example in the examples section below on how to use this.
Processing the stack directly
DUP, POP, EXC
Duplicate the top element, remove the top element, exchange the two
These operators work only on VDEF statements. Note that currently ONLY
these work for VDEF.
MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, AVERAGE
Return the corresponding value, MAXIMUM and MINIMUM also return the
first occurrence of that value in the time component.
Return the last/first value including its time. The time for FIRST
is actually the start of the corresponding interval, whereas LAST
returns the end of the corresponding interval.
Returns the rate from each defined time slot multiplied with the
step size. This can, for instance, return total bytes transfered
when you have logged bytes per second. The time component returns
the number of seconds.
This should follow a DEF or CDEF vname. The vname is popped,
another number is popped which is a certain percentage (0..100).
The data set is then sorted and the value returned is chosen such
that percentage percent of the values is lower or equal than the
result. Unknown values are considered lower than any finite number
for this purpose so if this operator returns an unknown you have
quite a lot of them in your data. Infinite numbers are lesser, or
more, than the finite numbers and are always more than the Unknown
numbers. (NaN < -INF < finite values < INF)
LSLSLOPE, LSLINT, LSLCORREL
Return the parameters for a Least Squares Line (y = mx +b) which
approximate the provided dataset. LSLSLOPE is the slope (m) of the
line related to the COUNT position of the data. LSLINT is the
y-intercept (b), which happens also to be the first data point on
the graph. LSLCORREL is the Correlation Coefficient (also know as
Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Coefficient). It will range
from 0 to +/-1 and represents the quality of fit for the approxima
rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works. rrdgraph_data
describes DEF,CDEF and VDEF in detail. rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN
language used in the ?DEF statements. rrdgraph_graph page describes
all of the graph and print functions.
Make sure to read rrdgraph_examples for tips&tricks.
Program by Tobias Oetiker
This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt
1.2.15 2006-07-14 RRDGRAPH_RPN(1)