RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1) rrdtool RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1)
rrdgraph_graph - rrdtool graph command reference
These instructions allow you to generate your image or report. If you
dont use any graph elements, no graph is generated. Similarly, no
report is generated if you dont use print options.
Depending on the context, either the value component or the time
component of a VDEF is printed using format. It is an error to
specify a vname generated by a DEF or CDEF.
Any text in format is printed literally with one exception: The
percent character introduces a formatter string. This string can
For printing values:
%% just prints a literal % character
prints numbers like 1.2346e+04. The optional integers # denote
field width and decimal precision.
prints numbers like 12345.6789, with optional field width and
%s place this after %le, %lf or %lg. This will be replaced by the
appropriate SI magnitude unit and the value will be scaled
accordingly (123456 -> 123.456 k).
%S is similar to %s. It does, however, use a previously defined
magnitude unit. If there is no such unit yet, it tries to
define one (just like %s) unless the value is zero, in which
case the magnitude unit stays undefined. Thus, formatter
strings using %S and no %s will all use the same magnitude unit
except for zero values.
If you PRINT a VDEF value, you can also print the time associated
with it by appending the string :strftime to the format. Note that
rrdtool uses the strftime function of your OSs clibrary. This means
that the conversion specifier may vary. Check the manual page if
you are uncertain. The following is a list of conversion specifiers
usually supported across the board.
%a The abbreviated weekday name according to the current locale.
%A The full weekday name according to the current locale.
%b The abbreviated month name according to the current locale.
%B The full month name according to the current locale.
%c The preferred date and time representation for the current
%d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31).
%H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to
%I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to
%j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366).
%m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12).
%M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59).
%p Either AM or PM according to the given time value, or the
corresponding strings for the current locale. Noon is treated
as pm and midnight as am. Note that in many locales and
pm notation is unsupported and in such cases %p will return
an empty string.
%S The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61).
%U The week number of the current year as a decimal number,
range 00 to 53, starting with the first Sunday as the first day
of week 01. See also %V and %W.
%V The ISO 8601:1988 week number of the current year as a decimal
number, range 01 to 53, where week 1 is the first week that
has at least 4 days in the current year, and with Monday as the
first day of the week. See also %U and %W.
%w The day of the week as a decimal, range 0 to 6, Sunday being 0.
See also %u.
%W The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range
00 to 53, starting with the first Monday as the first day
of week 01.
%x The preferred date representation for the current locale with
out the time.
%X The preferred time representation for the current locale with
out the date.
%y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to
%Y The year as a decimal number including the century.
%Z The time zone or name or abbreviation.
%% A literal % character.
Deprecated. Use the new form of this command in new scripts. The
first form of this command is to be used with CDEF vnames.
This is the same as "PRINT", but printed inside the graph.
Deprecated. Use the new form of this command in new scripts. This
is the same as "PRINT", but printed inside the graph.
Text is printed literally in the legend section of the graph. Note
that in RRDtool 1.2 you have to escape colons in COMMENT text in
the same way you have to escape them in *PRINT commands by writing
VRULE:time#color [:legend ]
Draw a vertical line at time. Its color is composed from three
hexadecimal numbers specifying the rgb color components (00 is off,
FF is maximum) red, green and blue followed by an optional alpha.
Optionally, a legend box and string is printed in the legend sec
tion. time may be a number or a variable from a VDEF. It is an
error to use vnames from DEF or CDEF here.
HRULE:value#color [ :legend ]
Draw a horyzontal line at value. HRULE acts much like LINE except
that will have no effect on the scale of the graph. If a HRULE is
outside the graphing area it will just not be visible.
Draw a line of the specified width onto the graph. width can be a
floating point number. If the color is not specified, the drawing
is done invisibly. This is useful when stacking something else on
top of this line. Also optional is the legend box and string which
will be printed in the legend section if specified. The value can
be generated by DEF, VDEF, and CDEF. If the optional STACK modi
fier is used, this line is stacked on top of the previous element
which can be a LINE or an AREA.
When you do not specify a color, you cannot specify a legend.
Should you want to use STACK, use the "LINEx:::STACK" form.
See LINE, however the area between the x-axis and the line will be
Plot a tick mark (a vertical line) for each value of vname that is
non-zero and not *UNKNOWN*. The fraction argument specifies the
length of the tick mark as a fraction of the y-axis; the default
value is 0.1 (10% of the axis). Note that the color specification
is not optional. The TICK marks normaly start at the lower edge of
the graphing area. If the fraction is negative they start at the
upper border of the graphing area.
Using this command RRDtool will graph the following elements with
the specified offset. For instance, you can specify an offset of
( 7*24*60*60 = ) 604800 seconds to "look back" one week. Make sure
to tell the viewer of your graph you did this ... As with the
other graphing elements, you can specify a number or a variable
Deprecated. Use the STACK modifiers on the other commands.
Some notes on stacking
When stacking, an element is not placed above the X-axis but rather on
top of the previous element. There must be something to stack upon.
You can use an invisible LINE or AREA to stacked upon.
An unknown value makes the entire stack unknown from that moment on.
You dont know where to begin (the unknown value) and therefore do not
know where to end.
If you want to make sure you will be displaying a certain variable,
make sure never to stack upon the unknown value. Use a CDEF instruc
tion with IF and UN to do so.
NOTES on legend arguments
Escaping the colon
A colon : in a legend argument will mark the end of the legend. To
enter a : as part of a legend, the colon must be escaped with a back
slash \:. Beware that many environments process backslashes them
selves, so it may be necessary to write two backslashes in order to one
being passed onto rrd_graph.
The text printed below the actual graph can be formatted by appending
special escape characters at the end of a text. When ever such a char
acter occurs, all pending text is pushed onto the graph according to
the character specified.
Valid markers are: \j for justified, \l for left aligned, \r for right
aligned, and \c for centered. In the next section there is an example
showing how to use centered formatting.
Normally there are two space characters inserted between every two
items printed into the graph. The space following a string can be sup
pressed by putting a \g at the end of the string. The \g also ignores
any space inside the string if it is at the very end of the string.
This can be used in connection with %s to suppress empty unit strings.
A special case is COMMENT:\s which inserts some additional vertical
space before placing the next row of legends.
If you are using the proportional font in your graph, you can use tab
characters or the sequence \t to line-up legend elements. Note that the
tabs inserted are relative to the start of the current legend element!
rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works. rrdgraph_data
describes DEF,CDEF and VDEF in detail. rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN
language used in the ?DEF statements. rrdgraph_graph page describes
all of the graph and print functions.
Make sure to read rrdgraph_examples for tips&tricks.
Program by Tobias Oetiker
This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt
1.2.15 2006-07-14 RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1)