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RRDGRAPH(1)			    rrdtool			   RRDGRAPH(1)

       rrdgraph - Round Robin Database tool grapher functions

       rrdtool graph filename [option ...]  [data definition ...]  [data cal
       culation ...]  [variable definition ...]  [graph element ...]  [print
       element ...]

       The graph function of RRDtool is used to present the data from an RRD
       to a human viewer.  Its main purpose is to create a nice graphical rep
       resentation, but it can also generate a numerical report.

       rrdtool graph needs data to work with, so you must use one or more data
       definition statements to collect this data.  You are not limited to one
       database, its perfectly legal to collect data from two or more
       databases (one per statement, though).

       If you want to display averages, maxima, percentiles, etcetera it is
       best to collect them now using the variable definition statement.  Cur
       rently this makes no difference, but in a future version of rrdtool you
       may want to collect these values before consolidation.

       The data fetched from the RRA is then consolidated so that there is
       exactly one datapoint per pixel in the graph. If you do not take care
       yourself, RRDtool will expand the range slightly if necessary. Note, in
       that case the first and/or last pixel may very well become unknown!

       Sometimes data is not exactly in the format you would like to display
       it. For instance, you might be collecting bytes per second, but want to
       display bits per second. This is what the data calculation command is
       designed for. After consolidating the data, a copy is made and this
       copy is modified using a rather powerful RPN command set.

       When you are done fetching and processing the data, it is time to graph
       it (or print it).  This ends the rrdtool graph sequence.

	   The name and path of the graph to generate. It is recommended to
	   end this in ".png", ".svg" or ".eps", but RRDtool does not enforce

	   filename can be "-" to send the image to "stdout". In this case,
	   no other output is generated.

       Time range
	   [-s--start time] [-e--end time] [-S--step seconds]

	   The start and end of the time series you would like to display, and
	   which RRA the data should come from.  Defaults are: 1 day ago until
	   now, with the best possible resolution. Start and end can be speci
	   fied in several formats, see AT-STYLE TIME SPECIFICATION and rrd
	   graph_examples.  By default, rrdtool graph calculates the width of
	   one pixel in the time domain and tries to get data from an RRA with
	   that resolution.  With the step option you can alter this
	   behaviour.  If you want rrdtool graph to get data at a one-hour
	   resolution from the RRD, set step to 3600. Note: a step smaller
	   than one pixel will silently be ignored.

	   [-t--title string] [-v--vertical-label string]

	   A horizontal string at the top of the graph and/or a vertically
	   placed string at the left hand side of the graph.

	   [-w--width pixels] [-h--height pixels] [-j--only-graph]

	   The width and height of the canvas (the part of the graph with the
	   actual data and such). This defaults to 400 pixels by 100 pixels.

	   If you specify the --only-graph option and set the height < 32 pix
	   els you will get a tiny graph image (thumbnail) to use as an icon
	   for use in an overview, for example. All labeling will be stripped
	   off the graph.

	   [-u--upper-limit value] [-l--lower-limit value] [-r--rigid]

	   By default the graph will be autoscaling so that it will adjust the
	   y-axis to the range of the data. You can change this behaviour by
	   explicitly setting the limits. The displayed y-axis will then range
	   at least from lower-limit to upper-limit. Autoscaling will still
	   permit those boundaries to be stretched unless the rigid option is


	   Sometimes the default algorithm for selecting the y-axis scale is
	   not satisfactory. Normally the scale is selected from a predefined
	   set of ranges and this fails miserably when you need to graph some
	   thing like "260 + 0.001 * sin(x)". This option calculates the mini
	   mum and maximum y-axis from the actual minimum and maximum data
	   values. Our example would display slightly less than "260-0.001" to
	   slightly more than "260+0.001" (this feature was contributed by
	   Sasha Mikheev).


	   Where "--alt-autoscale" will modify both the absolute maximum AND
	   minimum values, this option will only affect the maximum value. The
	   minimum value, if not defined on the command line, will be 0. This
	   option can be useful when graphing router traffic when the WAN line
	   uses compression, and thus the throughput may be higher than the
	   WAN line speed.


	   In order to avoid anti-aliasing effects gridlines are placed on
	   integer pixel values. This is by default done by extending the
	   scale so that gridlines happens to be spaced using an integer num
	   ber of pixels and also start on an integer pixel value.  This might
	   extend the scale too much for some logarithmic scales and for lin
	   ear scales where --alt-autoscale is needed.	Using --no-gridfit
	   disables modification of the scale.

	       [-x--x-grid GTM:GST:MTM:MST:LTM:LST:LPR:LFM]

	       [-x--x-grid none]

	       The x-axis label is quite complex to configure. If you dont
	       have very special needs it is probably best to rely on the
	       autoconfiguration to get this right. You can specify the string
	       "none" to suppress the grid and labels altogether.

	       The grid is defined by specifying a certain amount of time in
	       the ?TM positions. You can choose from "SECOND", "MINUTE",
	       "HOUR", "DAY", "WEEK", "MONTH" or "YEAR". Then you define how
	       many of these should pass between each line or label.  This
	       pair (?TM:?ST) needs to be specified for the base grid (G??),
	       the major grid (M??) and the labels (L??). For the labels you
	       also must define a precision in LPR and a strftime format
	       string in LFM.  LPR defines where each label will be placed. If
	       it is zero, the label will be placed right under the corre
	       sponding line (useful for hours, dates etcetera).  If you spec
	       ify a number of seconds here the label is centered on this
	       interval (useful for Monday, January etcetera).

		--x-grid MINUTE:10:HOUR:1:HOUR:4:0:%X

	       This places grid lines every 10 minutes, major grid lines every
	       hour, and labels every 4 hours. The labels are placed under the
	       major grid lines as they specify exactly that time.

		--x-grid HOUR:8:DAY:1:DAY:1:0:%A

	       This places grid lines every 8 hours, major grid lines and
	       labels each day. The labels are placed exactly between two
	       major grid lines as they specify the complete day and not just

	       [-y--y-grid grid step:label factor]

	       [-y--y-grid none]

	       Y-axis grid lines appear at each grid step interval.  Labels
	       are placed every label factor lines.  You can specify "-y none"
	       to suppress the grid and labels altogether.  The default for
	       this option is to automatically select sensible values.


	       Place the Y grid dynamically based on the graphs Y range. The
	       algorithm ensures that you always have a grid, that there are
	       enough but not too many grid lines, and that the grid is met
	       ric. That is the grid lines are placed every 1, 2, 5 or 10
	       units. This parameter will also ensure that you get enough dec
	       imals displayed even if your graph goes from 69.998 to 70.001.
	       (contributed by Sasha Mikheev).


	       Logarithmic y-axis scaling.

	       [-X--units-exponent value]

	       This sets the 10**exponent scaling of the y-axis values. Nor
	       mally, values will be scaled to the appropriate units (k, M,
	       etc.).  However, you may wish to display units always in k
	       (Kilo, 10e3) even if the data is in the M (Mega, 10e6) range,
	       for instance. Value should be an integer which is a multiple of
	       3 between -18 and 18 inclusively.  It is the exponent on the
	       units you wish to use. For example, use 3 to display the y-axis
	       values in k (Kilo, 10e3, thousands), use -6 to display the
	       y-axis values in u (Micro, 10e-6, millionths).  Use a value of
	       0 to prevent any scaling of the y-axis values.

	       This option is very effective at confusing the heck out of the
	       default rrdtool autoscaler and grid painter. If rrdtool detects
	       that it is not successful in labeling the graph under the given
	       circumstances, it will switch to the more robust --alt-y-grid

	       [-L--units-length value]

	       How many digits should rrdtool assume the y-axis labels to be?
	       You may have to use this option to make enough space once you
	       start fideling with the y-axis labeling.


	       With this option y-axis values on logarithmic graphs will be
	       scaled to the appropriate units (k, M, etc.) instead of using
	       exponential notation.  Note that for linear graphs, SI notation
	       is used by default.


	   Only generate the graph if the current graph is out of date or not

	   [-f--imginfo printfstr]

	   After the image has been created, the graph function uses printf
	   together with this format string to create output similar to the
	   PRINT function, only that the printf function is supplied with the
	   parameters filename, xsize and ysize. In order to generate an IMG
	   tag suitable for including the graph into a web page, the command
	   line would look like this:

	    --imginfo Demo

	   [-c--color COLORTAG#rrggbb[aa]]

	   Override the default colors for the standard elements of the graph.
	   The COLORTAG is one of "BACK" background, "CANVAS" for the back
	   ground of the actual graph, "SHADEA" for the left and top border,
	   "SHADEB" for the right and bottom border, "GRID", "MGRID" for the
	   major grid, "FONT" for the color of the font, "AXIS" for the axis
	   of the graph, "FRAME" for the line around the color spots and
	   finally "ARROW" for the arrow head pointing up and forward. Each
	   color is composed out of three hexadecimal numbers specifying its
	   rgb color component (00 is off, FF is maximum) of red, green and
	   blue. Optionally you may add another hexadecimal number specifying
	   the transparency (FF is solid). You may set this option several
	   times to alter multiple defaults.

	   A green arrow is made by: "--color ARROW#00FF00"

	   [--zoom factor]

	   Zoom the graphics by the given amount. The factor must be > 0

	   [-n--font FONTTAG:size:[font]]

	   This lets you customize which font to use for the various text ele
	   ments on the RRD graphs. "DEFAULT" sets the default value for all
	   elements, "TITLE" for the title, "AXIS" for the axis labels, "UNIT"
	   for the vertical unit label, "LEGEND" for the graph legend.

	   Use Times for the title: "--font TITLE:13:/usr/lib/fonts/times.ttf"

	   If you do not give a font string you can modify just the sice of
	   the default font: "--font TITLE:13:".

	   If you specify the size 0 then you can modify just the font without
	   touching the size. This is especially usefull for altering the
	   default font without resetting the default fontsizes: "--font

	   RRDtool comes with a preset default font. You can set the environ
	   ment variable "RRD_DEFAULT_FONT" if you want to change this.

	   Truetype fonts are only supported for PNG output. See below.

	   [-R--font-render-mode {normal,light,mono}]

	   This lets you customize the strength of the font smoothing, or dis
	   able it entirely using mono. By default, normal font smoothing is

	   [-B--font-smoothing-threshold size]

	   This specifies the largest font size which will be rendered
	   bitmapped, that is, without any font smoothing. By default, no text
	   is rendered bitmapped.


	   RRDtool graphs are composed of stair case curves by default. This
	   is in line with the way RRDtool calculates its data. Some people
	   favor a more organic look for their graphs even though it is not
	   all that true.

	   [-a--imgformat PNGSVGEPSPDF]

	   Image format for the generated graph. For the vector formats you
	   can choose among the standard Postscript fonts Courier-Bold,
	   Courier-BoldOblique, Courier-Oblique, Courier, Helvetica-Bold, Hel
	   vetica-BoldOblique, Helvetica-Oblique, Helvetica, Symbol,
	   Times-Bold, Times-BoldItalic, Times-Italic, Times-Roman, and ZapfD


	   If images are interlaced they become visible on browsers more


	   Suppress generation of the legend; only render the graph.


	   Force the generation of HRULE and VRULE legends even if those HRULE
	   or VRULE will not be drawn because out of graph boundaries (mimics
	   behaviour of pre 1.0.42 versions).

	   [-T--tabwidth value]

	   By default the tab-width is 40 pixels, use this option to change

	   [-b--base value]

	   If you are graphing memory (and NOT network traffic) this switch
	   should be set to 1024 so that one Kb is 1024 byte. For traffic mea
	   surement, 1 kb/s is 1000 b/s.

	   [-W--watermark string]

	   Adds the given string as a watermark, horizontally centred, at the
	   bottom of the graph.

       Data and variables

	   CDEF:vname=RPN expression

	   VDEF:vname=RPN expression

	   You need at least one DEF statement to generate anything. The other
	   statements are useful but optional.	See rrdgraph_data and rrd
	   graph_rpn for the exact format.

       Graph and print elements
	   You need at least one graph element to generate an image and/or at
	   least one print statement to generate a report.  See rrdgraph_graph
	   for the exact format.

       rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works.  rrdgraph_data
       describes DEF,CDEF and VDEF in detail.  rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN
       language used in the ?DEF statements.  rrdgraph_graph page describes
       all of the graph and print functions.

       Make sure to read rrdgraph_examples for tips&tricks.

       Program by Tobias Oetiker 

       This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt 

1.2.15				  2006-07-14			   RRDGRAPH(1)

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