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PERLSYN(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	    PERLSYN(1)

       perlsyn - Perl syntax

       A Perl program consists of a sequence of declarations and statements
       which run from the top to the bottom.  Loops, subroutines and other
       control structures allow you to jump around within the code.

       Perl is a free-form language, you can format and indent it however you
       like.  Whitespace mostly serves to separate tokens, unlike languages
       like Python where it is an important part of the syntax.

       Many of Perls syntactic elements are optional.  Rather than requiring
       you to put parentheses around every function call and declare every
       variable, you can often leave such explicit elements off and Perl will
       figure out what you meant.  This is known as Do What I Mean, abbrevi
       ated DWIM.  It allows programmers to be lazy and to code in a style
       with which they are comfortable.

       Perl borrows syntax and concepts from many languages: awk, sed, C,
       Bourne Shell, Smalltalk, Lisp and even English.	Other languages have
       borrowed syntax from Perl, particularly its regular expression exten
       sions.  So if you have programmed in another language you will see
       familiar pieces in Perl.  They often work the same, but see perltrap
       for information about how they differ.


       The only things you need to declare in Perl are report formats and sub
       routines (and sometimes not even subroutines).  A variable holds the
       undefined value ("undef") until it has been assigned a defined value,
       which is anything other than "undef".  When used as a number, "undef"
       is treated as 0; when used as a string, it is treated as the empty
       string, ""; and when used as a reference that isnt being assigned to,
       it is treated as an error.  If you enable warnings, youll be notified
       of an uninitialized value whenever you treat "undef" as a string or a
       number.	Well, usually.	Boolean contexts, such as:

	   my $a;
	   if ($a) {}

       are exempt from warnings (because they care about truth rather than
       definedness).  Operators such as "++", "--", "+=", "-=", and ".=", that
       operate on undefined left values such as:

	   my $a;

       are also always exempt from such warnings.

       A declaration can be put anywhere a statement can, but has no effect on
       the execution of the primary sequence of statements--declarations all
       take effect at compile time.  Typically all the declarations are put at
       the beginning or the end of the script.	However, if youre using lexi
       cally-scoped private variables created with "my()", youll have to make
       sure your format or subroutine definition is within the same block
       scope as the my if you expect to be able to access those private vari

       Declaring a subroutine allows a subroutine name to be used as if it
       were a list operator from that point forward in the program.  You can
       declare a subroutine without defining it by saying "sub name", thus:

	   sub myname;
	   $me = myname $0	       or die "cant get myname";

       Note that myname() functions as a list operator, not as a unary opera
       tor; so be careful to use "or" instead of "||" in this case.  However,
       if you were to declare the subroutine as "sub myname ($)", then
       "myname" would function as a unary operator, so either "or" or "||"
       would work.

       Subroutines declarations can also be loaded up with the "require"
       statement or both loaded and imported into your namespace with a "use"
       statement.  See perlmod for details on this.

       A statement sequence may contain declarations of lexically-scoped vari
       ables, but apart from declaring a variable name, the declaration acts
       like an ordinary statement, and is elaborated within the sequence of
       statements as if it were an ordinary statement.	That means it actually
       has both compile-time and run-time effects.


       Text from a "#" character until the end of the line is a comment, and
       is ignored.  Exceptions include "#" inside a string or regular expres

       Simple Statements

       The only kind of simple statement is an expression evaluated for its
       side effects.  Every simple statement must be terminated with a semi
       colon, unless it is the final statement in a block, in which case the
       semicolon is optional.  (A semicolon is still encouraged if the block
       takes up more than one line, because you may eventually add another
       line.)  Note that there are some operators like "eval {}" and "do {}"
       that look like compound statements, but arent (theyre just TERMs in
       an expression), and thus need an explicit termination if used as the
       last item in a statement.

       Truth and Falsehood

       The number 0, the strings 0 and , the empty list "()", and "undef"
       are all false in a boolean context. All other values are true.  Nega
       tion of a true value by "!" or "not" returns a special false value.
       When evaluated as a string it is treated as , but as a number, it is
       treated as 0.

       Statement Modifiers

       Any simple statement may optionally be followed by a SINGLE modifier,
       just before the terminating semicolon (or block ending).  The possible
       modifiers are:

	   if EXPR
	   unless EXPR
	   while EXPR
	   until EXPR
	   foreach LIST

       The "EXPR" following the modifier is referred to as the "condition".
       Its truth or falsehood determines how the modifier will behave.

       "if" executes the statement once if and only if the condition is true.
       "unless" is the opposite, it executes the statement unless the condi
       tion is true (i.e., if the condition is false).

	   print "Basset hounds got long ears" if length $ear >= 10;
	   go_outside() and play() unless $is_raining;

       The "foreach" modifier is an iterator: it executes the statement once
       for each item in the LIST (with $_ aliased to each item in turn).

	   print "Hello $_!\n" foreach qw(world Dolly nurse);

       "while" repeats the statement while the condition is true.  "until"
       does the opposite, it repeats the statement until the condition is true
       (or while the condition is false):

	   # Both of these count from 0 to 10.
	   print $i++ while $i <= 10;
	   print $j++ until $j >  10;

       The "while" and "until" modifiers have the usual ""while" loop" seman
       tics (conditional evaluated first), except when applied to a "do"-BLOCK
       (or to the deprecated "do"-SUBROUTINE statement), in which case the
       block executes once before the conditional is evaluated.  This is so
       that you can write loops like:

	   do {
	       $line = ;
	   } until $line  eq ".\n";

       See "do" in perlfunc.  Note also that the loop control statements
       described later will NOT work in this construct, because modifiers
       dont take loop labels.  Sorry.  You can always put another block
       inside of it (for "next") or around it (for "last") to do that sort of
       thing.  For "next", just double the braces:

	   do {{
	       next if $x == $y;
	       # do something here
	   }} until $x++ > $z;

       For "last", you have to be more elaborate:

	   LOOP: {
		   do {
		       last if $x = $y**2;
		       # do something here
		   } while $x++ <= $z;

       NOTE: The behaviour of a "my" statement modified with a statement modi
       fier conditional or loop construct (e.g. "my $x if ...") is undefined.
       The value of the "my" variable may be "undef", any previously assigned
       value, or possibly anything else.  Dont rely on it.  Future versions
       of perl might do something different from the version of perl you try
       it out on.  Here be dragons.

       Compound Statements

       In Perl, a sequence of statements that defines a scope is called a
       block.  Sometimes a block is delimited by the file containing it (in
       the case of a required file, or the program as a whole), and sometimes
       a block is delimited by the extent of a string (in the case of an

       But generally, a block is delimited by curly brackets, also known as
       braces.	We will call this syntactic construct a BLOCK.

       The following compound statements may be used to control flow:

	   if (EXPR) BLOCK
	   if (EXPR) BLOCK else BLOCK
	   if (EXPR) BLOCK elsif (EXPR) BLOCK ... else BLOCK
	   LABEL while (EXPR) BLOCK
	   LABEL while (EXPR) BLOCK continue BLOCK
	   LABEL until (EXPR) BLOCK
	   LABEL until (EXPR) BLOCK continue BLOCK
	   LABEL foreach VAR (LIST) BLOCK
	   LABEL foreach VAR (LIST) BLOCK continue BLOCK
	   LABEL BLOCK continue BLOCK

       Note that, unlike C and Pascal, these are defined in terms of BLOCKs,
       not statements.	This means that the curly brackets are required--no
       dangling statements allowed.  If you want to write conditionals without
       curly brackets there are several other ways to do it.  The following
       all do the same thing:

	   if (!open(FOO)) { die "Cant open $FOO: $!"; }
	   die "Cant open $FOO: $!" unless open(FOO);
	   open(FOO) or die "Cant open $FOO: $!";     # FOO or bust!
	   open(FOO) ? hi mom : die "Cant open $FOO: $!";
			       # a bit exotic, that last one

       The "if" statement is straightforward.  Because BLOCKs are always
       bounded by curly brackets, there is never any ambiguity about which
       "if" an "else" goes with.  If you use "unless" in place of "if", the
       sense of the test is reversed.

       The "while" statement executes the block as long as the expression is
       true (does not evaluate to the null string "" or 0 or "0").  The
       "until" statement executes the block as long as the expression is
       false.  The LABEL is optional, and if present, consists of an identi
       fier followed by a colon.  The LABEL identifies the loop for the loop
       control statements "next", "last", and "redo".  If the LABEL is omit
       ted, the loop control statement refers to the innermost enclosing loop.
       This may include dynamically looking back your call-stack at run time
       to find the LABEL.  Such desperate behavior triggers a warning if you
       use the "use warnings" pragma or the -w flag.

       If there is a "continue" BLOCK, it is always executed just before the
       conditional is about to be evaluated again.  Thus it can be used to
       increment a loop variable, even when the loop has been continued via
       the "next" statement.

       Loop Control

       The "next" command starts the next iteration of the loop:

	   LINE: while () {
	       next LINE if /^#/;      # discard comments

       The "last" command immediately exits the loop in question.  The "con
       tinue" block, if any, is not executed:

	   LINE: while () {
	       last LINE if /^$/;      # exit when done with header

       The "redo" command restarts the loop block without evaluating the con
       ditional again.	The "continue" block, if any, is not executed.	This
       command is normally used by programs that want to lie to themselves
       about what was just input.

       For example, when processing a file like /etc/termcap.  If your input
       lines might end in backslashes to indicate continuation, you want to
       skip ahead and get the next record.

	   while (<>) {
	       if (s/\\$//) {
		   $_ .= <>;
		   redo unless eof();
	       # now process $_

       which is Perl short-hand for the more explicitly written version:

	   LINE: while (defined($line = )) {
	       if ($line =~ s/\\$//) {
		   $line .= ;
		   redo LINE unless eof(); # not eof(ARGV)!
	       # now process $line

       Note that if there were a "continue" block on the above code, it would
       get executed only on lines discarded by the regex (since redo skips the
       continue block). A continue block is often used to reset line counters
       or "?pat?" one-time matches:

	   # inspired by :1,$g/fred/s//WILMA/
	   while (<>) {
	       ?(fred)?    && s//WILMA $1 WILMA/;
	       ?(barney)?  && s//BETTY $1 BETTY/;
	       ?(homer)?   && s//MARGE $1 MARGE/;
	   } continue {
	       print "$ARGV $.: $_";
	       close ARGV  if eof();	       # reset $.
	       reset	   if eof();	       # reset ?pat?

       If the word "while" is replaced by the word "until", the sense of the
       test is reversed, but the conditional is still tested before the first

       The loop control statements dont work in an "if" or "unless", since
       they arent loops.  You can double the braces to make them such,

	   if (/pattern/) {{
	       last if /fred/;
	       next if /barney/; # same effect as "last", but doesnt document as well
	       # do something here

       This is caused by the fact that a block by itself acts as a loop that
       executes once, see "Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements".

       The form "while/if BLOCK BLOCK", available in Perl 4, is no longer
       available.   Replace any occurrence of "if BLOCK" by "if (do BLOCK)".

       For Loops

       Perls C-style "for" loop works like the corresponding "while" loop;
       that means that this:

	   for ($i = 1; $i < 10; $i++) {

       is the same as this:

	   $i = 1;
	   while ($i < 10) {
	   } continue {

       There is one minor difference: if variables are declared with "my" in
       the initialization section of the "for", the lexical scope of those
       variables is exactly the "for" loop (the body of the loop and the con
       trol sections).

       Besides the normal array index looping, "for" can lend itself to many
       other interesting applications.	Heres one that avoids the problem you
       get into if you explicitly test for end-of-file on an interactive file
       descriptor causing your program to appear to hang.

	   $on_a_tty = -t STDIN && -t STDOUT;
	   sub prompt { print "yes? " if $on_a_tty }
	   for ( prompt(); ; prompt() ) {
	       # do something

       Using "readline" (or the operator form, "") as the conditional of
       a "for" loop is shorthand for the following.  This behaviour is the
       same as a "while" loop conditional.

	   for ( prompt(); defined( $_ =  ); prompt() ) {
	       # do something

       Foreach Loops

       The "foreach" loop iterates over a normal list value and sets the vari
       able VAR to be each element of the list in turn.  If the variable is
       preceded with the keyword "my", then it is lexically scoped, and is
       therefore visible only within the loop.	Otherwise, the variable is
       implicitly local to the loop and regains its former value upon exiting
       the loop.  If the variable was previously declared with "my", it uses
       that variable instead of the global one, but its still localized to
       the loop.  This implicit localisation occurs only in a "foreach" loop.

       The "foreach" keyword is actually a synonym for the "for" keyword, so
       you can use "foreach" for readability or "for" for brevity.  (Or
       because the Bourne shell is more familiar to you than csh, so writing
       "for" comes more naturally.)  If VAR is omitted, $_ is set to each

       If any element of LIST is an lvalue, you can modify it by modifying VAR
       inside the loop.  Conversely, if any element of LIST is NOT an lvalue,
       any attempt to modify that element will fail.  In other words, the
       "foreach" loop index variable is an implicit alias for each item in the
       list that youre looping over.

       If any part of LIST is an array, "foreach" will get very confused if
       you add or remove elements within the loop body, for example with
       "splice".   So dont do that.

       "foreach" probably wont do what you expect if VAR is a tied or other
       special variable.   Dont do that either.


	   for (@ary) { s/foo/bar/ }

	   for my $elem (@elements) {
	       $elem *= 2;

	   for $count (10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,BOOM) {
	       print $count, "\n"; sleep(1);

	   for (1..15) { print "Merry Christmas\n"; }

	   foreach $item (split(/:[\\\n:]*/, $ENV{TERMCAP})) {
	       print "Item: $item\n";

       Heres how a C programmer might code up a particular algorithm in Perl:

	   for (my $i = 0; $i < @ary1; $i++) {
	       for (my $j = 0; $j < @ary2; $j++) {
		   if ($ary1[$i] > $ary2[$j]) {
		       last; # cant go to outer :-(
		   $ary1[$i] += $ary2[$j];
	       # this is where that last takes me

       Whereas heres how a Perl programmer more comfortable with the idiom
       might do it:

	   OUTER: for my $wid (@ary1) {
	   INNER:   for my $jet (@ary2) {
		       next OUTER if $wid > $jet;
		       $wid += $jet;

       See how much easier this is?  Its cleaner, safer, and faster.  Its
       cleaner because its less noisy.	Its safer because if code gets added
       between the inner and outer loops later on, the new code wont be acci
       dentally executed.  The "next" explicitly iterates the other loop
       rather than merely terminating the inner one.  And its faster because
       Perl executes a "foreach" statement more rapidly than it would the
       equivalent "for" loop.

       Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements

       A BLOCK by itself (labeled or not) is semantically equivalent to a loop
       that executes once.  Thus you can use any of the loop control state
       ments in it to leave or restart the block.  (Note that this is NOT true
       in "eval{}", "sub{}", or contrary to popular belief "do{}" blocks,
       which do NOT count as loops.)  The "continue" block is optional.

       The BLOCK construct is particularly nice for doing case structures.

	   SWITCH: {
	       if (/^abc/) { $abc = 1; last SWITCH; }
	       if (/^def/) { $def = 1; last SWITCH; }
	       if (/^xyz/) { $xyz = 1; last SWITCH; }
	       $nothing = 1;

       There is no official "switch" statement in Perl, because there are
       already several ways to write the equivalent.

       However, starting from Perl 5.8 to get switch and case one can use the
       Switch extension and say:

	       use Switch;

       after which one has switch and case.  It is not as fast as it could be
       because its not really part of the language (its done using source
       filters) but it is available, and its very flexible.

       In addition to the above BLOCK construct, you could write

	   SWITCH: {
	       $abc = 1, last SWITCH  if /^abc/;
	       $def = 1, last SWITCH  if /^def/;
	       $xyz = 1, last SWITCH  if /^xyz/;
	       $nothing = 1;

       (Thats actually not as strange as it looks once you realize that you
       can use loop control "operators" within an expression.  Thats just the
       binary comma operator in scalar context.  See "Comma Operator" in per


	   SWITCH: {
	       /^abc/ && do { $abc = 1; last SWITCH; };
	       /^def/ && do { $def = 1; last SWITCH; };
	       /^xyz/ && do { $xyz = 1; last SWITCH; };
	       $nothing = 1;

       or formatted so it stands out more as a "proper" "switch" statement:

	   SWITCH: {
	       /^abc/	   && do {
				   $abc = 1;
				   last SWITCH;

	       /^def/	   && do {
				   $def = 1;
				   last SWITCH;

	       /^xyz/	   && do {
				   $xyz = 1;
				   last SWITCH;
	       $nothing = 1;


	   SWITCH: {
	       /^abc/ and $abc = 1, last SWITCH;
	       /^def/ and $def = 1, last SWITCH;
	       /^xyz/ and $xyz = 1, last SWITCH;
	       $nothing = 1;

       or even, horrors,

	   if (/^abc/)
	       { $abc = 1 }
	   elsif (/^def/)
	       { $def = 1 }
	   elsif (/^xyz/)
	       { $xyz = 1 }
	       { $nothing = 1 }

       A common idiom for a "switch" statement is to use "foreach"s aliasing
       to make a temporary assignment to $_ for convenient matching:

	   SWITCH: for ($where) {
		       /In Card Names/	   && do { push @flags, -e; last; };
		       /Anywhere/	   && do { push @flags, -h; last; };
		       /In Rulings/	   && do {		      last; };
		       die "unknown value for form variable where: $where";

       Another interesting approach to a switch statement is arrange for a
       "do" block to return the proper value:

	   $amode = do {
	       if     ($flag & O_RDONLY) { "r" }       # XXX: isnt this 0?
	       elsif  ($flag & O_WRONLY) { ($flag & O_APPEND) ? "a" : "w" }
	       elsif  ($flag & O_RDWR)	 {
		   if ($flag & O_CREAT)  { "w+" }
		   else 		 { ($flag & O_APPEND) ? "a+" : "r+" }


	       print do {
		   ($flags & O_WRONLY) ? "write-only"	       :
		   ($flags & O_RDWR)   ? "read-write"	       :

       Or if you are certain that all the "&&" clauses are true, you can use
       something like this, which "switches" on the value of the
       "HTTP_USER_AGENT" environment variable.

	   # pick out jargon file page based on browser
	   $dir = http://www.wins.uva.nl/~mes/jargon;
	   for ($ENV{HTTP_USER_AGENT}) {
	       $page  =    /Mac/	    && m/Macintrash.html
			|| /Win(dows )?NT/  && e/evilandrude.html
			|| /Win|MSIE|WebTV/ && m/MicroslothWindows.html
			|| /Linux/	    && l/Linux.html
			|| /HP-UX/	    && h/HP-SUX.html
			|| /SunOS/	    && s/ScumOS.html
			||		       a/AppendixB.html;
	   print "Location: $dir/$page\015\012\015\012";

       That kind of switch statement only works when you know the "&&" clauses
       will be true.  If you dont, the previous "?:" example should be used.

       You might also consider writing a hash of subroutine references instead
       of synthesizing a "switch" statement.


       Although not for the faint of heart, Perl does support a "goto"
       statement.  There are three forms: "goto"-LABEL, "goto"-EXPR, and
       "goto"-&NAME.  A loops LABEL is not actually a valid target for a
       "goto"; its just the name of the loop.

       The "goto"-LABEL form finds the statement labeled with LABEL and
       resumes execution there.  It may not be used to go into any construct
       that requires initialization, such as a subroutine or a "foreach" loop.
       It also cant be used to go into a construct that is optimized away.
       It can be used to go almost anywhere else within the dynamic scope,
       including out of subroutines, but its usually better to use some other
       construct such as "last" or "die".  The author of Perl has never felt
       the need to use this form of "goto" (in Perl, that is--C is another

       The "goto"-EXPR form expects a label name, whose scope will be resolved
       dynamically.  This allows for computed "goto"s per FORTRAN, but isnt
       necessarily recommended if youre optimizing for maintainability:

	   goto(("FOO", "BAR", "GLARCH")[$i]);

       The "goto"-&NAME form is highly magical, and substitutes a call to the
       named subroutine for the currently running subroutine.  This is used by
       "AUTOLOAD()" subroutines that wish to load another subroutine and then
       pretend that the other subroutine had been called in the first place
       (except that any modifications to @_ in the current subroutine are
       propagated to the other subroutine.)  After the "goto", not even
       "caller()" will be able to tell that this routine was called first.

       In almost all cases like this, its usually a far, far better idea to
       use the structured control flow mechanisms of "next", "last", or "redo"
       instead of resorting to a "goto".  For certain applications, the catch
       and throw pair of "eval{}" and die() for exception processing can also
       be a prudent approach.

       PODs: Embedded Documentation

       Perl has a mechanism for intermixing documentation with source code.
       While its expecting the beginning of a new statement, if the compiler
       encounters a line that begins with an equal sign and a word, like this

	   =head1 Here There Be Pods!

       Then that text and all remaining text up through and including a line
       beginning with "=cut" will be ignored.  The format of the intervening
       text is described in perlpod.

       This allows you to intermix your source code and your documentation
       text freely, as in

	   =item snazzle($)

	   The snazzle() function will behave in the most spectacular
	   form that you can possibly imagine, not even excepting
	   cybernetic pyrotechnics.

	   =cut back to the compiler, nuff of this pod stuff!

	   sub snazzle($) {
	       my $thingie = shift;

       Note that pod translators should look at only paragraphs beginning with
       a pod directive (it makes parsing easier), whereas the compiler actu
       ally knows to look for pod escapes even in the middle of a paragraph.
       This means that the following secret stuff will be ignored by both the
       compiler and the translators.

	   =secret stuff
	    warn "Neither POD nor CODE!?"
	   =cut back
	   print "got $a\n";

       You probably shouldnt rely upon the "warn()" being podded out forever.
       Not all pod translators are well-behaved in this regard, and perhaps
       the compiler will become pickier.

       One may also use pod directives to quickly comment out a section of

       Plain Old Comments (Not!)

       Perl can process line directives, much like the C preprocessor.	Using
       this, one can control Perls idea of filenames and line numbers in
       error or warning messages (especially for strings that are processed
       with "eval()").	The syntax for this mechanism is the same as for most
       C preprocessors: it matches the regular expression

	   # example: # line 42 "new_filename.plx"
	   /^\#   \s*
	     line \s+ (\d+)   \s*
	     (?:\s("?)([^"]+)\2)? \s*

       with $1 being the line number for the next line, and $3 being the
       optional filename (specified with or without quotes).

       There is a fairly obvious gotcha included with the line directive:
       Debuggers and profilers will only show the last source line to appear
       at a particular line number in a given file.  Care should be taken not
       to cause line number collisions in code youd like to debug later.

       Here are some examples that you should be able to type into your com
       mand shell:

	   % perl
	   # line 200 "bzzzt"
	   # the # on the previous line must be the first char on line
	   die foo;
	   foo at bzzzt line 201.

	   % perl
	   # line 200 "bzzzt"
	   eval qq[\n#line 2001 ""\ndie foo]; print $@;
	   foo at - line 2001.

	   % perl
	   eval qq[\n#line 200 "foo bar"\ndie foo]; print $@;
	   foo at foo bar line 200.

	   % perl
	   # line 345 "goop"
	   eval "\n#line " . __LINE__ .  " . __FILE__ ."\"\ndie foo";
	   print $@;
	   foo at goop line 345.

perl v5.8.8			  2008-04-25			    PERLSYN(1)

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