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PERLHPUX(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	   PERLHPUX(1)

       README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems

       This document describes various features of HPs Unix operating system
       (HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
       compiled and/or runs.

       Using perl as shipped with HP-UX

       Application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is the first to ship
       with Perl. By the time it was perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occur
       rence is on CD 5012-7954 and can be installed using

	 swinstall -s /cdrom perl

       assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the fol
       lowing modules were installed:

	 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04   HTML::Parser-3.19	 XML::DOM-1.25
	 Archive::Tar-0.072	     HTML::Tagset-3.03	 XML::Parser-2.27
	 Compress::Zlib-1.08	     MIME::Base64-2.11	 XML::Simple-1.05
	 Convert::ASN1-0.10	     Net-1.07		 XML::XPath-1.09
	 Digest::MD5-2.11	     PPM-2.1.5		 XML::XSLT-0.32
	 File::CounterFile-0.12      SOAP::Lite-0.46	 libwww-perl-5.51
	 Font::AFM-1.18 	     Storable-1.011	 libxml-perl-0.07
	 HTML-Tree-3.11 	     URI-1.11		 perl-ldap-0.23

       The build was a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
       files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112

       If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed automat

       More recent (preinstalled) HP-UX systems have more recent versions of
       Perl and the updated modules.

       Using perl from HPs porting centre

       HP porting centre tries very hard to keep up with customer demand and
       release updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled Perl
       binaries available is obvious.

       The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed to
       port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions avail
       able. This means that at the moment of writing, there are only HP-UX
       11.11 (pa-risc 2.0) and HP-UX 11.23 (Itanium 2) ports available on the
       porting centres.

       HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries from /opt
       to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start of July 2002 are
       located in /usr/local.

       One of HP porting centres URLs is http://hpux.connect.org.uk/ The port
       currently available is built with GNU gcc.

       Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX

       When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler.  The C compiler
       that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
       used to build new kernels.

       Perl can be compiled with either HPs ANSI C compiler or with gcc.  The
       former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no diffi
       culty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
       require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.

       If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
       complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-spe
       cific details.


       HPs current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
       (PA-RISC) chip.	HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
       chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
       document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
       Motorola chipset.

       The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this documents last
       update is 2.0. HP PA-RISC systems are usually refered to with model
       description "HP 9000".

       A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
       /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
       part of the output of the "model" command.  The second column is the
       PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
       (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)

	 # model
	 # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
	 L1000-44	 2.0	 PA8500

       Portability Between PA-RISC Versions

       An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
       PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
       HP-UX.  If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want
       that Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable
       and +DS32 should be used.

       It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
       the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms.  The command-line flags are accepted,
       but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
       1.0 system.

       PA-RISC 1.0

       The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with
       this chip.

       The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:

	 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
	 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890

       PA-RISC 1.1

       An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many
       different system.

       The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:

	 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
	 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
	 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
	 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
	 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
	 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
	 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
	 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
	 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
	 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520

       PA-RISC 2.0

       The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
       64-bit integer data.

       As of the date of this documents last update, the following systems
       contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:

	 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
	 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
	 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
	 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
	 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
	 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
	 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540,
	 T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600

       Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. the link
       that contained the explanation is dead, so heres a short summary:

	 HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
	 HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
	 HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.

	 rp2400, rp2405, rp2430, rp2450, rp2470, rp3410, rp3440, rp4410,
	 rp4440, rp5400, rp5405, rp5430, rp5450, rp5470, rp7400, rp7405,
	 rp7410, rp7420, rp8400, rp8420, Superdome

       The current naming convention is:

	 ||||+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.)
	 |||--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different
	 |||	 systems do not have the same numbering across
	 |||	 architectures
	 ||---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning
	 |----- c = ia32 (cisc)
	 |	 p = pa-risc
	 |	 x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2)
	 |	 h = housing
	 ------ t = tower
		 r = rack optimized
		 s = super scalable
		 b = blade
		 sa = appliance

       Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX

       HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor.  This requires the use of
       a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.23 or 11i v2), and with the
       exception of a few differences detailed below and in later sections,
       Perl should compile with no problems.

       Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
       attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system.  This is
       because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
       while running a PA-RISC executable.

       HP Itanium 2 systems are usually refered to with model description "HP

       Itanium & Itanium 2

       HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
       date of this documents last update, the following systems contain Ita
       nium or Itanium 2 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):

	 BL60p, rx1600, rx1620, rx2600, rx2600hptc, rx2620, rx4610, rx4640,
	 rx5670, rx7620, rx8620, rx9610

       To see all about your machine, type

	 # model
	 ia64 hp server rx2600
	 # /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo

       Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX

       HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
       Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl.  On Itanium systems, they end
       with the suffix .so.

       Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC ver
       sion are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
       default.  However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using
       the same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
       mentioned above).

       Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on a
       PA-RISC platform.  Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform can
       only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
       that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library.	A PA-RISC shared
       library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.

       To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:

	 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
	    which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC).  The linker will
	    tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
	    (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)

	 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag.	If the code calls
	    any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
	    be included on this line.

       (Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the exten
       sions Makefile).

       If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
       time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when
       the library is loaded.

       You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
       may be either an archive library or a shared library.  If this second
       library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library".  The
       dependent librarys name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
       is not linked into the shared library.  Instead, it is loaded when the
       main shared library is loaded.  This can cause problems if you build an
       extension on one system and move it to another system where the
       libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.

       If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
       simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC).  These
       modules are then linked into the shared library.

       Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
       library that is already linked into perl.

       Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
       libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
       are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
       into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.  HP is
       aware of this problem.  Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for discussions
       about the subject.  The short answer is that everything (all libraries,
       everything) must be compiled with "+z" or "+Z" to be PIC (position
       independent code).  (For gcc, that would be "-fpic" or "-fPIC").  In
       HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker error message should tell the name of
       the offending object file.

       A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example
       for the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCats libdb.sl:

	 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
	 # vi Makefile
	 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
	 CFLAGS=	 -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
			 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
	 CXXFLAGS=	 -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
			 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6

	 # make clean
	 # make
	 # mkdir tmp
	 # cd tmp
	 # ar x ../libdb.a
	 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
	 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
	 # rm *.o
	 # cd /usr/local/lib
	 # rm -f libdb.sl
	 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl

	 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
	 # make distclean
	 # perl Makefile.PL
	 # make
	 # make test
	 # make install

       As of db-4.2.x it is no longer needed to do this by hand. Sleepycat has
       changed the configuration process to add +z on HP-UX automatically.

	 # cd .../db-4.2.25/build_unix
	 # env CFLAGS=+DA2.0w LDFLAGS=+DA2.0w ../dist/configure

       should work to generate 64bit shared libraries for HP-UX 11.00 and 11i.

       It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
       though the command-line flags are still present).

       PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable.  Although you
       may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC object
       files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using an Itanium
       link editor.

       The HP ANSI C Compiler

       When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
       flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
       file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
       recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automati

       The GNU C Compiler

       When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you dont have
       gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
       from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or
       fetch a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two
       places where gcc prebuilds can be fetched; the first and best (for HP-
       UX 11 only) is http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDe
       tailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html the second is
       http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also find the GNU
       binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there are often
       multiple versions of the same package available).

       Above mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made pre
       built gcc binaries available on http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/
       and/or http://www.cmve.net/~merijn/ for HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX 11.00, and
       HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i) in both 32- and 64-bit versions. These are
       bzipped tar archives that also include recent GNU binutils and GNU gdb.
       Read the instructions on that page to rebuild gcc using itself.

       On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and
       for 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects
       do not mix. Period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or
       GNU gcc. So if you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries,
       like Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.

       Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only
       when you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit
       binary of gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with
       HPs native compiler.

       Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX

       Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
       may be created and manipulated.	Three separate methods of doing this
       are available.  Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to com
       pile using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure.  This causes Perl to
       be compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits
       wide, rather than 32 bits wide.	(Note that this will only work with
       HPs ANSI C compiler.  If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will
       have to get a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.
       See above for where to find it.)

       There are some drawbacks to this approach.  One is that any extension
       which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
       (just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make
       install" procedure).

       The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
       creat,	      fgetpos,	fopen, freopen,  fsetpos,  fstat,
       fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev,	ftruncate, ftw,      lockf,	    lseek,
       lstat,	      mmap,	     nftw, open,	  prealloc, stat,
       statvfs,  statvfsdev,	tmpfile, truncate, getrlimit,	  setrlimit

       Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0.  This
       drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
       and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.

       It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run Config
       ure.  If you do not do this, but later answer the question about large
       files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that cannot
       be compiled, or that does not function as expected.

       Threaded Perl on HP-UX

       It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
       HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
       HP-UX 11.00 at least.

       To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of Con
       figure.	Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
       automatically added to the list of flags.  Also make sure that
       -lpthread is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl
       with. The hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard
       to get this right for you.

       HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
       threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
       on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
       April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, avail
       able on H.Merijns site (http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/).

       If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for
       threading is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates
       of that library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but
       it will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a com
       pelling reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a
       newer version in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608,
       or PHSS_23672

       reformatted output:

	 d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
	    HP DCE/9000 1.5		  Module: libcma.sl (Export)
					  Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
	    HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
					  Date: Sep  4 1999 01:59:07
	    HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608	  Module: libcma.1 (Export)
					  Date: Dec  8 1999 18:41:23
	    HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672	  Module: libcma.1 (Export)
					  Date: Apr  9 2001 10:01:06
	 d3:/usr/lib 107 >

       If you choose for the PTH package, use swinstall to install pth in the
       default location (/opt/pth), and then make symbolic links to the
       libraries from /usr/lib

	 # cd /usr/lib
	 # ln -s /opt/pth/lib/libpth* .

       For building perl to support Oracle, it needs to be linked with libcl
       and libpthread. So even if your perl is an unthreaded build, these
       libraries might be required. See "Oracle on HP-UX" below.

       64-bit Perl on HP-UX

       Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
       advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
       Pointers are 64 bits wide), in which scalar variables will be able to
       hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.  Perl has proven
       to be consistent and reliable in 64bit mode since 5.8.1 on all HP-UX

       As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on HP-
       UX 11.00 and up for both cc- and gcc builds. If you are about to build
       a 64-bit perl with GNU gcc, please read the gcc section carefully.

       Should a user have the need for compiling Perl in the LP64 environment,
       use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure.  This will force Perl to be
       compiled in a pure LP64 environment (with the +DD64 flag for HP
       C-ANSI-C, with no additional options for GNU gcc 64-bit on PA-RISC, and
       with -mlp64 for GNU gcc on Itanium).  If you want to compile Perl using
       gcc, you will have to get a version of the compiler that supports
       64-bit operations.)

       You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure.  Although there
       are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
       the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl
       users perspective. When configuring -Duse64bitint using a 64bit gcc on
       a pa-risc architecture, -Duse64bitint is silently promoted to

       In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
       you run Configure.  If you do not use do this, but later answer the
       questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
       configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as

       Oracle on HP-UX

       Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
       has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
       DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here is
       that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the latter
       even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using all
       defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
       achieved using

	 Configure -A prepend:libswanted=cl pthread  ...

       Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.

       Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations, it is
       known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.

       GDBM and Threads on HP-UX

       If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
       link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
       starts up.  The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
       library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.

       NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX

       If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the
       test io/fs.t may fail on test #18.  This appears to be a bug in HP-UX
       and no fix is currently available.

       perl -P and // and HP-UX

       If HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the -P
       flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before perl
       sees it) is used.  The problem is that "//", being a C++-style until-
       end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder of the
       line.  This means that common Perl constructs like


       will turn into illegal code


       The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than "/", like
       for example "!":


       HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl

       By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
       64MB.  This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
       optimization levels.  You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
       parameter through the use of SAM.

       When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
       icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon.  Scroll down and select
       the maxdsiz line.  From the Actions menu, select the Modify Config
       urable Parameter item.  Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value
       box.  Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot
       your system.

       In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
       Perl to compile at maximum optimization.

nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
       You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent tests.
       If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like the following:

	 #0  0xc004216c in  () from /usr/lib/libc.2
	 #1  0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
	 #2  0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
	 #3  0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
	 #4  0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
	 #5  0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
	 #6  0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
	 #7  0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
	 #8  0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
	 #9  0x2005c in main () from ./perl

       The key here is the "nss_delete" call.  One workaround for this bug
       seems to be to create add to the file /etc/nsswitch.conf (at least) the
       following lines

	 group: files
	 passwd: files

       Whether you are using NIS does not matter.  Amazingly enough, the same
       bug also affects Solaris.

       Jeff Okamoto  H.Merijn Brand 

       With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.

       Version 0.7.6: 2005-12-20

perl v5.8.8			  2008-04-25			   PERLHPUX(1)

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