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       h2n - Translate host table to name server file format

       h2n -d DOMAIN -n NET -u CONTACT [options]

       h2n  translates	/etc/hosts  to DNS files and creates a BIND boot file.
       This tool can be run once or many times.  After	converting  your  host
       table  to  DNS  format, you can manually maintain the DNS files, or you
       can  maintain  the  host  table	and  run  h2n  each  time  you	modify
       /etc/hosts.  h2n automatically increments the serial number in each DNS
       file when it makes a new one.

       h2n generates files starting with the prefix "db."   These  are	called
       "db  files."   The  domain  data are stored in a file called db.DOMAIN,
       where DOMAIN defaults to the first label in  your  domain  name	(given
       with  the  -d  option).	 The  address-to-name data are stored in files
       named db.NET, where NET is a network number (given with the -n option).
       An  email address for the person responsible for the domain is included
       in the start-of-authority record for the  domain  (given  with  the  -u

       Each  time  h2n	is  run, it generates the DNS files from scratch.  Any
       changes you manually made to the DNS files are lost.  If youd like  to
       add  resource  records to a db file generated by h2n, put your RRs in a
       file prefixed with "spcl" instead  of  "db".   h2n  will  include  this
       files  data by adding an $INCLUDE directive to the end of the db file.

       By default, h2n will generate an MX record with a  weight  of  10  that
       points to the host itself as the mail exchanger.  Additional MX records
       can be added to all hosts by using -m options.  To suppress  generating
       the  default  MX  record for a host, include "[no smtp]" in that hosts
       host table comment.   Note  that  "[no  smtp]"  does  not  override  -m
       options.   Use "[no mx]" in the comment field to suppress all MX record
       generation for that host.  This is useful for such IP devices as print
       ers  which  do  not  need mailer information.  In conjunction with "[no
       mx]", you can add the "[smtp]" flag in the comment field to  have  only
       the  default MX record added, suppressing -m options for the host.  All
       MX record generation for the domain can be suppressed with -M.

       Another comment section flag is "[TTL=num]", where num  is  a  specific
       time-to-live  value  to	use for the resource records pertaining to the
       canonical hostname in the host table.  This is useful for setting arti
       ficially  high or low TTL values for individual hosts.  For example, if
       you are going to be moving a host to a new IP address, you can use this
       to set a low TTL value such as 900 (seconds).  This limits how long the
       old IP address will be cached everywhere.  The maximum any client  will
       have  to  wait for the new IP address to be seen would be 15 minutes in
       this case.

       There is one additional	comment  field	option	which  causes  certain
       records	to be created or not created.  Including "[rafcp]" in the com
       ment section will cause WKS records indicating RAFCP support to be gen
       erated  for  the  host  and suppress generation of all MX records, even
       those specified with the -m option.  This is to support	routable  AFCP
       on  the	TIO-side  of  HP 3000s which use Telnet Express Boxes as front

       By default, h2n will  create  a	boot  file,  ./boot.cacheonly,	for  a
       caching-only  name server.  If either of the -z or -Z options are used,
       h2n  creates  a	boot  file,  named   ./boot.sec.save   or   ./boot.sec
       respectively, for a secondary name server.
       NOTE: Certain h2n options (-v, -I audit) require that the dig
	     program be installed.  dig is available in the standard BIND
	     distribution at < http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/ >.

       Options are:

       -A   Dont create name server data for aliases in the host table.

	    Add  information  about  hosts  from  network  NET	to  the DOMAIN
	    database file.  This is similar to the -n option, but no PTR  data
	    is	generated,  i.e.,  no  db.NET file is created.	This is useful
	    when another server is responsible	for  address-to-name  mapping,
	    but  this  server  is  responsible	for  name-to-address  mapping.
	    Including more than one -a option is allowed.

       -b BOOTFILE
	    Use BOOTFILE instead of the default: ./named.boot

       -B PATH
	    Sets the directory where boot files will be  written  (named.boot,
	    boot.sec  and/or  boot.sec.save,  and  boot.cacheonly).   You must
	    specify an absolute pathname.

       -c REMOTE-DOMAIN [mode=[A][D[Q]]] [REMOTE-DOMAIN] ...
	    Create CNAME records in the default domain for all	the  hosts  in
	    REMOTE-DOMAIN.  These CNAME records are generated before any other
	    data in the default DOMAIN specified in the  -d  option,  i.e,  RR
	    name conflicts favor the -c REMOTE-DOMAIN over the default DOMAIN.
	    Also, CNAME records are only  generated  for  canonical  names  in
	    REMOTE-DOMAIN - aliases are ignored.  This default behavior can be
	    overridden by including one or more of the following mode= flags:
	      A  Create additional CNAMEs for aliases in REMOTE-DOMAIN.
	      D  Defer creation of CNAMEs, i.e., RR names in the default
		 DOMAIN takes precedence over naming conflicts in the
	      Q  Do not issue a warning message when a deferred CNAME
		 can not be created due to a naming conflict in the default
		 domain.  Valid only when the "D" flag is also specified.
	    Including more than one -c option is allowed.

	    Create resource records by using keys in the  host	table  comment
	    field   as	 indices  into	COMMENT-FILE.	COMMENT-FILE  contains
	    "key:resource record" pairs like:  "720:IN	HINFO  hp9000s720  hp-
	    ux".  When h2n encounters "720" in the comment section of the host
	    table, it creates a resource record by replacing the "720:"   with
	    the hosts canonical name.

       +c CONFFILE
	    Use CONFFILE instead of the default: ./named.conf

       -d DOMAIN [db=FILE1] [spcl=FILE2] [mode=d]
	    Your domain name is DOMAIN.  Use the db= and/or spcl= arguments to
	    override the default filenames of db.LABEL	and  spcl.LABEL  where
	    LABEL  is  the  first label of DOMAIN, e.g., label.movie.edu.  Use
	    the mode=d argument to  set  the  default  domain  of  unqualified
	    canonical host names in the hostfile to DOMAIN.

	    Exclude  data  from  the  hostfile	with names in EXCLUDED-DOMAIN.
	    Specifying more than one -e option is allowed.

       -f FILE
	    Command line options are read  from  a  file  called  FILE.   This
	    option  cannot  be used within FILE.  Comments are allowed in FILE
	    using the same style as in the host table or DNS  database	files,
	    i.e., comments start after a # or ; and continue to the end of
	    the line.

       -h HOST
	    Use HOST in the MNAME (master nameserver) field of the SOA record.
	    The default is the host on which you run h2n.

       -H HOSTFILE
	    Use HOSTFILE instead of /etc/hosts.

       -i NUM
	    Set the serial number of the zone to NUM.

       -I [ignore|warn|audit|warn-strict|fail|strict]
	    Controls  the  level of checking done on hostnames for conformance
	    to naming standards established by RFC-952 and RFC-1123.
	    The -I option accepts one of the following arguments which
	    are ordered such that each subsequent argument includes the
	    functionality of the preceding one:
	      ignore  Disables name checking.
		warn  Issues a warning about hostnames and domain names that
		      do not conform to RFC-952 and RFC-1123.
		      NOTE:  Hostname aliases that generate a CNAME record
		      type (the most common case) are generally not subject
		      to the restrictions of these two RFCs.
		      This flexibility of alias names allows the preservation
		      of an otherwise illegal hostname by making it become an
		      alias instead.
	       audit  Issues a warning about -h/-s/-S/-m options that point
		      to CNAMEs or nonexistent domain names.  If a spcl
		      forward-mapping file exists, the same checks are also
		      done with NS, MX and PTR records as well as checks for
		      dangling CNAMEs.	Delegated subdomains are checked for
		      having at least two listed nameservers, no missing glue
		      records, and NS RRsets with consistent TTL values.
		      This is the default setting.
       warn-strict  Extends conformance checking to the RFC-952 requirement
		      that hostnames and their aliases in the host table be
		      at least two characters in length.
		fail  Performs the same level of checking as the warn
		      argument except that non-compliant hostnames and
		      aliases are rejected.
	      strict  Performs the same level of checking as the warn-strict
		      argument except that non-compliant hostnames and
		      aliases are rejected.

       -L NUM
	    Explicitly use a file handle limit of NUM when generating database

       +L [LOG-SPEC]
	    Add  a  logging  specification  to	the  config files (named.conf,
	    conf.sec, conf.sec.save).  If you only specify "+L", youll get  a
	    simple  logging  specification  that will eliminate a lot of bogus
	    information that would otherwise fill up  your  syslog.   You  can
	    override this by giving your own entries, e.g., "+L category lame-
	    servers { null; };".  For each "+L LOG-SPEC"  option  you  add,  a
	    line containing LOG-SPEC is added in the config file, thus includ
	    ing more than one +L option is allowed.   See  the	named(1M)  man
	    page for valid logging options.

	    Include  an MX record for each host in your domain pointing to MX-
	    HOST at WEIGHT.  Including more than one -m option is allowed.

       Example:  -m 10:terminator.movie.edu 20:wormhole

       +m [D|C|P|CP]
	    Controls the method by which DNS records get generated  for  hosts
	    with  multiple  addresses.	By default, the canonical name of such
	    multi-homed hosts is assigned an  A  record  for  each  address.
	    Aliases  unique  to  one  address are also assigned an A record.
	    Aliases common to all addresses are assigned a CNAME record.   The
	    PTR  record for each address points to the multi-address canonical
	    name.  This default behavior can be overridden by  specifying  one
	    of the following flags:
	      D  Same as the default behavior.
	      C  The first alias unique to one address is still assigned
		 an A record but subsequent aliases unique to the address
		 are assigned CNAME records which point to the first alias.
	      P  PTR records do not point to the multi-address canonical name
		 but instead point to the first alias having an A record.
	    Combining  the  C and P flags is allowed.  These global specifica
	    tions can be overridden for any host by  including	the  analogous
	    "[mh=d|c|p|cp]" flag in its comment field.

       -M   Dont generate MX records.

	    NET  is your network number without the trailing zeros.  Including
	    more than one -n option is allowed.  If  SUBNETMASK  is  provided,
	    create data for each subnet of NET.

       Example:  -n 192.249.249 15.15.16:

	    Apply  SUBNETMASK  to  all network numbers instead of listing each
	    subnet with -n.  Specifying a subnet mask with -n overrides the -N
	    subnet mask for that network only.

	    Change  the  default SOA values to the values provided.  For name
	    servers running versions of BIND prior to 8.2, the default	values
	    are  (10800:3600:604800:86400).   For versions 8.2 and later which
	    implement  RFC-2308,  the  defaults  are  (3h:1h:1w:10m:1d)   with
	    DEFAULT-TTL appearing in a $TTL directive and MINIMUM being seman
	    tically treated as a negative caching value .
	    If DEFAULT-TTL is not specified, h2n will  try  to	determine  the
	    BIND version of the master nameserver (-h option or localhost) and
	    act accordingly.
	    NOTE: These built-in default values do not override those in zone
		  files that already exist.  Use the -o option to specify SOA
		  values that will override those in existing zone files as
		  well as becoming the default values for new zone files.

       Example:  -o ::::8h   generates $TTL 8h in all zone files.

	    Add a boot option specification to	the  boot  files  (named.boot,
	    boot.sec,  boot.sec.save), e.g., "-O options no-round-robin".  See
	    the named man page for valid options.  Including more than one  -O
	    option is allowed.

       +O [OPTION-SPEC]
	    Add   an   option	section  specification	to  the  config  files
	    (named.conf, conf.sec, conf.sec.save), e.g., "+O round-robin no;".
	    See the named man page for valid options.  Including more than one
	    +O option is allowed.  For each "+O OPTION-SPEC", a new line  con
	    taining  OPTION-SPEC  is  added  to the config file.  If you use a
	    single +O option without an argument, the global  options  section
	    will  not  be generated.  This is useful if you want to maintain a
	    main named.conf file for your master and slaves with a complex mix
	    of	options  {},  logging  {},  and  other	global	sections,  and
	    include the h2n-generated zone sections.  Combine this with a +c

	    Adds a zone-specific option to the config file (named.conf), e.g.,
	    "+om also-notify {;; };".  This option is  posi
	    tion  dependent and applies to the last -d or -n option specified,
	    however, if a +om option appears before any -d or -n options it is
	    assumed  that  the +om option applies to all zones.  Thus, it will
	    be added to each zone section in the config file.

	    Adds a zone-specific option to the config files  (conf.sec	and/or
	    conf.sec.save),  e.g.,  "+os  max-transfer-time-in 60;".  Like the
	    +om option, it is position dependent and applies to the last -d or
	    -n	option specified.  Also, if a +os option appears before any -d
	    or -n options it is assumed that the +os applies to all zones.

       -p REMOTE-DOMAIN [mode=[A][P]] [REMOTE-DOMAIN] ...
	    Create only PTR data for hosts in REMOTE-DOMAIN.  This  is	useful
	    when  a  different server is responsible for the forward (name-to-
	    address) mapping data of REMOTE-DOMAIN but this server is  respon
	    sible  for	the  reverse (address-to-name) mapping data of each -n
	    option.  Including more than one -p option is allowed.
	    The mode= argument may need to be specified with one of  the  fol
	    lowing flags:
	      A  Required for each REMOTE-DOMAIN which had its forward
		 mapping data built with the -A option.  This prevents
		 dangling PTR records from being generated for multi-homed
		 hosts in REMOTE-DOMAIN having the "[mh=p]" or "[mh=cp]" flag
		 in the comment field.	Can also be specified as an override
		 flag for REMOTE-DOMAIN when the +m P option is in effect.
	      P  Enables the alternate method of PTR record generation for
		 multi-homed hosts in REMOTE-DOMAIN as previously described
		 for the +m P option when that option is *not* in effect.
		 This method is overridden for any host in REMOTE-DOMAIN
		 having the "[mh=d]" or "[mh=c]" flag in its comment field.

       -q   Work quietly.

       -r   Enable  creation  of  RP  (Responsible  Person) records.  Look for
	    strings in the comment  section  of  the  host  table  that  match
	    "[rp=mail-addr [text]]", where mail-addr is a usual e-mail address
	    specification, and (optionally) text is a  free-form  text	string
	    (usually  containing  a phone number and/or pager number, or other
	    info).  This construct is converted to an RP record containing the
	    e-mail address, and if text is present, a TXT record is also added
	    containing text (with the RP record referencing the TXT record).

       -s SERVER [SERVER] ...
	    List SERVER for all zones.	Adds NS records for the zone(s) corre
	    sponding to the -d option and all -n options.  Including more than
	    one -s option is allowed.

       -S SERVER [SERVER] ...
	    List SERVER for specific zone(s).  Adds NS records for the zone(s)
	    corresponding  to  the last preceding -d or -n option (this option
	    is position dependent).  There  can  be  multiple  zones  if  this
	    applies  to  a  -n	option.   Including more than one -S option is

       -t   Generate TXT records from the host	table  comment	section.   Any
	    special processing options are ignored, e.g., [no smtp].

	    Create RFC-2308 $TTL directives in all zone files.	If MINIMUM-TTL
	    is specified, use that instead of the default of 10 minutes (600).

       -u USER
	    Use  USER  as the e-mail address in the RNAME (responsible person)
	    field of the SOA record.  USER should be a complete mail  address,
	    e.g.,   me@a.b.c  .  Defaults to root@DOMAIN (-d option).  Periods
	    in the username-portion of the address, e.g.,  first.last@a.b.c  ,
	    will be escaped if necessary.
	    NOTE: If USER lacks the "@" symbol and has a trailing period,
		  RNAME format will be assumed and USER left unchanged.

       -v domain [domain]
	    Verify the integrity of a domain by performing a zone transfer and
	    analyzing the data.  All of the checks described above for the  -I
	    audit  option  are	done  plus  those  for	"CNAME and other data"
	    errors.  In addition, listed nameservers are  checked  for	proper

       -w   Generate  WKS records that list the SMTP service over the TCP pro
	    tocol if an MX record is also created.

       -W PATH
	    Sets the directory where db files will be located on  the  primary
	    and  secondary  name  servers.  This is useful if you build new db
	    files on a host other than the primary.  You must specify an abso
	    lute pathname.

       -y   Use the date to create the serial number.  The date format used is
	    YYYYMMDDXX.  YYYY is the year.  MM is the month.  DD is the day of
	    the  month.   XX  is counter that starts at 00 and increments each
	    time h2n-hp is run on the same day.  The -y option will be ignored
	    for  zones	in which the existing serial number is larger than the
	    computed date-based serial number.

	    Create a boot file, ./boot.sec.save, for a secondary  name	server
	    that  lists ADDRESS as the master to load from, and save a copy of
	    the zone data in a backup file.  (This option is similar to the -Z
	    option.)  Including more than one -z option is allowed.

	    Create  a  boot file, ./boot.sec, for a secondary name server that
	    lists ADDRESS as the master to load from, and do not save  a  copy
	    of	the  data in a backup file.  (This option is similar to the -z
	    option.)  Including more than one -Z option is allowed.

	    Enables delegated subdomains to be recursively verified after com
	    pleting verification of the parent domain with the -v option.

	    Disables  delegation  checking  when verifying one or more domains
	    with the -v option.  Such checks can take a long time if  a  large
	    number of unresponsive nameservers are encountered.

	    Displays  each  element  of  a CNAME chain to which an out-of-zone
	    CNAME points.  The default behavior is to ignore CNAME chains that
	    successfully resolve and display just the chain length of dangling
	    or looping CNAMEs.

       Create name server data for networks  192.249.249  and  192.253.253  in

       h2n -d movie.edu -n 192.249.249 -n 192.253.253

       Create  name  server  data  for networks 192.249.249 and 192.253.253 in
       movie.edu.  Eliminate lines in the host table that contain fx.movie.edu
       and include MX records for all hosts pointing to the mail hub, postman
       rings2x.movie.edu.  Afterwards, look for additional resource records in
       the file "spcl.movie.edu" and append them to "db.movie" via an $INCLUDE
       directive.  Include all of the options in a file.

       h2n -f option_file

       option_file contains the following lines:

       -d movie.edu  spcl=spcl.movie.edu
       -n 192.249.249
       -n 192.253.253
       -e fx.movie.edu
       -m 50:postmanrings2x.movie.edu

				August 21, 2000 			h2n(1)

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