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GROFF(1)							      GROFF(1)

       groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system

       groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
	     [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
	     [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]
       groff -h | --help
       groff -v | --version [option ...]

       The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option and its argument is  optional.
       Options can be grouped behind a single - (minus character).  A filename
       of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

       This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and macro suite is
       the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec
       tion  GNU  http://www.gnu.org.	The groff system has all features of
       the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows to control the whole groff system  by  command
       line  options.	This  is  a  great simplification in comparison to the
       classical case (which uses pipes only).

       As groff is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.  But the groff program has some additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed into groff.

   Native groff Options
       The  following options either do not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -h --help
	      Print a help message.

       -I dir Add search directory for soelim(1).  This option implies the  -s

       -l     Send  the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command
	      that should be used for this is specified by the	print  command
	      in the device description file, see groff_font(5).  If this com
	      mand is not present, the output is piped into the lpr(1) program
	      by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg  to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
	      passed with a separate -L option each.  Note that groff does not
	      prepend - (a minus sign) to arg before passing it to the spooler

       -N     Dont allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This is the same as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass  -option  or  -option arg to the postprocessor.  The option
	      must be specified with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) -
	      or -- because groff does not prepend any dashes before passing
	      it to the postprocessor.	For example, to pass a	title  to  the
	      gxditview postprocessor, the shell command

	      sh# groff -X -P -title -P groff it foo

	      is equivalent to

	      sh# groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title groff it -

       -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar
	      guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent lan
	      guage  elements  that can be specified within the document.  See
	      refer(1) for more details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device to dev.  The  possible	values	in  groff  are
	      ascii,  cp1047,  dvi, html, latin1, lbp, lj4, ps, utf8, X75, and
	      X100.  Additionally, X75-12 and X100-12 are available for  docu
	      ments which use 12pt as the base document size.  The default de
	      vice is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see	option

       -v --version
	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
	      run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usu
	      al way, passing -v to all subprograms.

       -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run by groff (as a wrapper
	      program), but do not execute it.

       -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using  the  usual  postprocessor  to
	      (pre)view a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
	      with options -l and -L is carried over to gxditview(1) by deter
	      mining an argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
	      This sets the default Print action and  the  corresponding  menu
	      entry  to  that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps,
	      -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.  The default  resolution
	      for  previewing  -Tps  output  is  75dpi; this can be changed by
	      passing the -resolution option to gxditview, for example

	      sh# groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated by troff.  Only error messages will be

       -Z     Do  not  postprocess the output of troff that is normally called
	      automatically by groff.  This will print the intermediate output
	      to standard output; see groff_out(5).

   Transparent Options
       The  following  options	are transparently handed over to the formatter
       program troff that is called by groff subsequently.  These options  are
       described in more detail in troff(1).

       -a     ascii approximation of output.

       -b     backtrace on error or warning.

       -c     disable color output.

       -C     enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      define string.

       -E     disable troff error messages.

       -f fam set default font family.

       -F dir set path for font DESC files.

       -i     process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      include	macro	file   name.tmac   (or	tmac.name);  see  also

       -M dir path for macro files.

       -n num number the first page num.

       -o list
	      output only pages in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      set number register.

       -w name
	      enable warning name.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.

       The groff system implements the infrastructure of classical  roff;  see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the
       front-end programs available within the groff system,  using  groff  is
       much easier than classical roff.  This section gives an overview of the
       parts that constitute the groff system.	It  complements  roff(7)  with
       groff-specific  features.   This  section can be regarded as a guide to
       the documentation around the groff system.

       The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It	allows
       to  specify the preprocessors by command line options and automatically
       runs the postprocessor that is appropriate  for	the  selected  device.
       Doing  so,  the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of classical roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The grog(1) program can be used for guessing the correct groff  command
       line to format a file.

       The  groffer(1)	program  is an allround-viewer for groff files and man

       The groff preprocessors are reimplementations of the classical  prepro
       cessors	with  moderate extensions.  The preprocessors distributed with
       the groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formul,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

	      for bibliographic references,

	      for including macro files from standard locations,


       tbl(1) for tables.

       Besides these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automati
       cally run with some devices.  These arent visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro  packages	can be included by option -m.  The groff system imple
       ments and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way  and
       adds  some packages of its own.	Actually, the following macro packages
       come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package for man pages; it automatically recognizes
	      whether the documents uses  the  man  or	the  mdoc  format  and
	      branches	to  the corresponding macro package.  It can be speci
	      fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.

       mdoc   The BSD-style man page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.

       me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see

       Details	on  the naming of macro files and their placement can be found
       in groff_tmac(5).

   Programming Language
       General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The  groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented in

       The groff language as a whole is described in  the  (still  incomplete)
       groff  info  file;  a  short  (but  complete) reference can be found in

       The central roff formatter within the groff  system  is	troff(1).   It
       provides the features of both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the groff extensions.  The command line option -C switches  troff  into
       compatibility  mode  which  tries  to emulate classical roff as much as

       There is a shell script nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of  classi
       cal  nroff.   It tries to automatically select the proper output encod
       ing, according to the current locale.

       The formatter program generates intermediate output; see  groff_out(7).

       In  roff,  the  output  targets	are called devices.  A device can be a
       piece of hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software file format.  A device
       is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as follows.

       ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text  output  using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g. OS/390

       nippon Text output using the Japanese-EUC character set.

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       ascii8 For typewriter-like devices.  Unlike ascii, this device is 8 bit
	      clean.   This  device  is intended to be used for codesets other
	      than ASCII and ISO-8859-1.

       latin1 Text output using the ISO Latin-1 (ISO  8859-1)  character  set;
	      see iso_8859_1(7).

       lbp    Output  for  Canon  CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript output; suitable for  printers  and  previewers  like

       utf8   Text  output  using  the	Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with
	      UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).	 A variant for a 12pt document
	      base font is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).	 A variant for a 12pt document
	      base font is X100-12.

       The postprocessor to be used for a device is specified by  the  postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

       groff provides 3 hardware postprocessors:

	      for some Canon printers,

	      for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

	      for text output using various encodings, e.g.  on  text-oriented
	      terminals or line-printers.

       Today,  most  printing  or drawing hardware is handled by the operating
       system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there isnt an urgent need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for
       mats are

	      for the DVI format,

	      for HTML format,

	      for PostScript.

       Combined  with  the  many existing free conversion tools this should be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data

       The following utility programs around groff are available.

	      Add  information	to  troff  font description files for use with

	      Create font description files for PostScript device.

	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

	      The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

	      Create font description files for lj4 device.

	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

	      Search bibliographic databases.

	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

	      Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

	      Create font description files for TeX DVI device.

	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

       Normally, the path separator in the following environment variables  is
       the  colon; this may vary depending on the operating system.  For exam
       ple, DOS and Windows use a semicolon instead.

	      This search path, followed by $PATH, will be used  for  commands
	      that are executed by groff.  If it is not set then the directory
	      where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

	      When there is a need to run different  roff  implementations  at
	      the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to
	      most of its programs that could provoke name  clashings  at  run
	      time  (default  is to have none).  Historically, this prefix was
	      the character g, but it can be anything.	 For  example,	gtroff
	      stood  for groffs troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.  By
	      setting GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the  different
	      roff installations can be addressed.  More exactly, if it is set
	      to prefix xxx then groff as a wrapper  program  will  internally
	      call  xxxtroff  instead of troff.  This also applies to the pre
	      processors eqn, grn, pic, refer, tbl, soelim, and to the	utili
	      ties  indxbib  and  lookbib.  This feature does not apply to any
	      programs different from the ones above (most notably  groff  it
	      self) since they are unique to the groff package.

	      A  list of directories in which to search for the devname direc
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See  troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for more details.

	      A  list of directories in which to search for macro files in ad
	      dition  to  the	default   directories.	  See	troff(1)   and
	      groff_tmac(5) for more details.

	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is not set but the environment variable TMPDIR  instead,	tempo
	      rary  files will be created in the directory $TMPDIR.  Otherwise
	      temporary  files	will  be  created  in  /tmp.   The   refer(1),
	      groffer(1),  grohtml(1),	and  grops(1)  commands  use temporary

	      Preset the default device.  If this is not set the ps device  is
	      used  as default.  This device name is overwritten by the option

       There are some directories in which groff  installs  all  of  its  data
       files.	Due  to  different  installation habits on different operating
       systems, their locations are not absolutely fixed, but  their  function
       is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This  contains  all  information  related to macro packages.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files as  documented
       in  groff_tmac(5).   For  the  groff installation corresponding to this
       document, it is located at /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac.  The following
       files contained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning:

	      Initialization file for troff.  This is interpreted by troff be
	      fore reading the macro sets and any input.

	      Final startup file for troff, it is parsed after all macro  sets
	      have been read.

	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This  contains  all  information  related to output devices.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files; see troff(1).
       For the groff installation corresponding to this document, it is locat
       ed at /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font.  The following files  contained  in
       the groff font directory have a special meaning:

	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       The  following  example illustrates the power of the groff program as a
       wrapper around troff.

       To process a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and  the  me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

       sh# pic foo.me | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

       sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1 foo.me

       An  even easier way to call this is to use grog(1) to guess the prepro
       cessor and macro options and execute the generated command (by specify
       ing shell left quotes)

       sh# grog -Tlatin1 foo.me

       The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling

       sh# groffer foo.me

       On EBCDIC hosts (e.g. OS/390 Unix), output  devices  ascii  and	latin1
       arent available.  Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not
       available on ASCII based operating systems.

       Report bugs to bug-groff@gnu.org.  Include a  complete,	self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff you are using.

       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the  GNU  website http://www.gnu.org/software/groff.  The most recent
       released version of groff is available for anonymous ftp at  the  groff
       development	    site	  ftp://ftp.ffii.org/pub/groff/devel/

       Three groff mailing lists are available:

	      for reporting bugs,

	      for general discussion of groff,

	      a read-only list showing logs of commitments to the CVS  reposi

       Details	on CVS access and much more can be found in the file README at
       the top directory of the groff source package.

       There is a free implementation of the grap preprocessor, written by Ted
       Faber  faber@lunabase.org.   The  actual  version can be found at the
       grap   website	http://www.lunabase.org/~faber/Vault/software/grap/.
       This is the only grap version supported by groff.

       Copyright  1989, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

       This document is based on the original groff man page written by  James
       Clark  jjc@jclark.com.  It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under the
       FDL license by Bernd Warken bwarken@mayn.de.   It  is  maintained  by
       Werner Lemberg wl@gnu.org.

       groff  is  a GNU free software project.	All parts of the groff package
       are protected by GNU copyleft licenses.	The software  files  are  dis
       tributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
       the documentation files mostly use the GNU Free	Documentation  License

       The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within
       a single document.  Beneath the detailed documentation of all  aspects,
       it provides examples and background information.  See info(1) on how to
       read it.

       Due to its complex structure, the groff	system	has  many  man	pages.
       They can be read with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:

       Viewer for groff files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs for formatters:
	      groff(1), grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1), soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1), troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The intermediate output language:

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1),    grohtml(1),    grolbp(1),	grolj4(1),   grops(1),

       Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),   groff_man(7),	groff_mdoc(7),	  groff_me(7),
	      groff_mm(7),     groff_mmse(7),	 groff_mom(7),	  groff_ms(7),
	      groff_www(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1),	afmtodit(1),	 eqn2graph(1),	   groffer(1),
	      gxditview(1),  hpftodit(1),  indxbib(1), lookbib(1), pfbtops(1),
	      pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1).

Groff Version 1.18.1		 17 April 2006			      GROFF(1)

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