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BUSYBOX(1)			    BusyBox			    BUSYBOX(1)

       BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

	BusyBox  [arguments...]  # or

	 [arguments...]	   # if symlinked

       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most
       of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-
       featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counter

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.  It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or
       exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.	BusyBox provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run make config or
       make menuconfig to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run make to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use make install to
       install BusyBox. This will install the bin/busybox binary, in the
       target directory specified by PREFIX. PREFIX can be set when configur
       ing BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at install time
       (i.e., with a command line like make PREFIX=/tmp/foo install). If you
       enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or
       hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by

       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.	A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets) can share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

	       /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as ls.

       Of course, adding /bin/busybox into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

       For example, entering

	       ln -s /bin/busybox ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as ls (if the ls command has been
       compiled into BusyBox).	Generally speaking, you should never need to
       make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this
       for you when you run the make install command.

       If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a
       list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.

       Most BusyBox commands support the --help argument to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VER
       BOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed usage information
       will also be available.

       Currently defined functions include:

	       [, [[, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk,
	       basename, bbconfig, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, cal, cat, chattr,
	       chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio,
	       crond, crontab, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser,
	       devfsd, df, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg_deb, du,
	       dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, echo, eject, env, ether_wake, expr,
	       fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, find, fold,
	       free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck_minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser,
	       getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hdparm, head, hexdump,
	       hostid, hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup,
	       inetd, init, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs,
	       iplink, iproute, iptunnel, kill, killall, klogd, lash, last,
	       length, less, ln, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname,
	       logread, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs, md5sum,
	       mdev, mesg, mkdir, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mknod, mkswap,
	       mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc,
	       netstat, nice, nohup, nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof,
	       ping, ping6, pivot_root, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps, pwd,
	       rdate, readlink, readprofile, realpath, reboot, renice, reset,
	       rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, run_parts, runlevel, rx,
	       sed, seq, setarch, setconsole, setkeycodes, setsid, sha1sum,
	       sleep, sort, start_stop_daemon, stat, strings, stty, su, sulogin,
	       sum, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, syslogd, tail,
	       tar, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time, top, touch, tr,
	       traceroute, true, tty, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname,
	       uncompress, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep,
	       uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, watch, watchdog, wc,
	       wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip

	   addgroup   [-g GID] group_name [user_name]

	   Adds a group to the system


		   -g GID	   specify gid

	   adduser    [OPTIONS] user_name

	   Adds a user to the system


		   -h DIR	   Assign home directory DIR
		   -g GECOS	   Assign gecos field GECOS
		   -s SHELL	   Assign login shell SHELL
		   -G		   Add the user to existing group GROUP
		   -S		   create a system user (ignored)
		   -D		   Do not assign a password (logins still possible via ssh)
		   -H		   Do not create the home directory

	   adjtimex   [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t

	   Reads and optionally sets system timebase parameters.  See adj


		   -q		   quiet mode - do not print
		   -o offset	   time offset, microseconds
		   -f frequency    frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
				   (positive values make the system clock run fast)
		   -t tick	   microseconds per tick, usually 10000
		   -p timeconstant

       ar  ar	      [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

	   Extract or list FILES from an ar archive.


		   -o		   preserve original dates
		   -p		   extract to stdout
		   -t		   list
		   -x		   extract
		   -v		   verbosely list files processed

	   arping     [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-I device] [-s
	   sender] target

	   Ping hosts by ARP requests/replies.


		   -f		   Quit on first ARP reply
		   -q		   Be quiet
		   -b		   Keep broadcasting, dont go unicast
		   -D		   Duplicated address detection mode
		   -U		   Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbours
		   -A		   ARP answer mode, update your neighbours
		   -c count	   Stop after sending count ARP request packets
		   -w timeout	   Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds
		   -I device	   Outgoing interface name, default is eth0
		   -s sender	   Set specific sender IP address
		   target	   Target IP address of ARP request

       ash ash	      [FILE]...  or: ash -c command [args]...

	   The ash shell (command interpreter)

       awk awk	      [OPTION]... [program-text] [FILE ...]


		   -v var=val	   assign value val to variable var
		   -F sep	   use sep as field separator
		   -f progname	   read program source from file progname

	   basename   FILE [SUFFIX]

	   Strips directory path and suffixes from FILE.  If specified, also
	   removes any trailing SUFFIX.


		   $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo
		   $ basename /usr/local/bin/
		   $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt


	   Print the config file which built busybox

	   bunzip2    [OPTION]... [FILE]

	   Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is - or omitted).


		   -c	   Write output to standard output
		   -f	   Force


	   Hello world!

	   bzcat      FILE

	   Uncompress to stdout.

       cal cal	      [-jy] [[month] year]

	   Display a calendar.


		   -j	   Use julian dates
		   -y	   Display the entire year

       cat cat	      [-u] [FILE]...

	   Concatenates FILE(s) and prints them to stdout.


		   -u	   ignored since unbuffered i/o is always used


		   $ cat /proc/uptime
		   110716.72 17.67

	   chattr     [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

	   change file attributes on an ext2 fs


		   -	   remove attributes
		   +	   add attributes
		   =	   set attributes

		   A	   dont track atime
		   a	   append mode only
		   c	   enable compress
		   D	   write dir contents synchronously
		   d	   do not backup with dump
		   i	   cannot be modified (immutable)
		   j	   write all data to journal first
		   s	   zero disk storage when deleted
		   S	   write file contents synchronously
		   t	   disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
		   u	   allow file to be undeleted

		   -R	   recursively list subdirectories
		   -v	   set the files version/generation number

	   chgrp      [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...

	   Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP.


		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively


		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chgrp root /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   chmod      [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

	   Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols
	   +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst.


		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively


		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -rwxrw-r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*
		   $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   chown      [ -Rh ]...  OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

	   Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.


		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively
		   -h	   Do not dereference symbolic links


		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chown root /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chown root.root /tmp/foo
		   ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   chroot     NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

	   Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT.


		   $ ls -l /bin/ls
		   lrwxrwxrwx	 1 root     root	  12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox
		   # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix
		   # chroot /mnt
		   # ls -l /bin/ls
		   -rwxr-xr-x	 1 root     root	40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

	   chvt       N

	   Changes the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN


	   Clear screen.

       cmp cmp	      [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2]

	   Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified.


		   -l	   Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
			     for all differing bytes
		   -s	   quiet mode - do not print

	   comm       [-123] FILE1 FILE2

	   Compares FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if = is specified.


		   -1	   Suppress lines unique to FILE1
		   -2	   Suppress lines unique to FILE2
		   -3	   Suppress lines common to both files

       cp  cp	      [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

	   Copies SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

		   -a	   Same as -dpR
		   -d,-P   Preserves links
		   -H,-L   Dereference all symlinks (implied by default)
		   -p	   Preserves file attributes if possible
		   -f	   force (implied; ignored) - always set
		   -i	   interactive, prompt before overwrite
		   -R,-r   Copies directories recursively

	   cpio       -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

	   Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:

		   d		   make leading directories
		   i		   extract
		   m		   preserve mtime
		   t		   list
		   v		   verbose
		   u		   unconditional overwrite
		   F		   input from file

	   crond      -d[#] -c  -f -b

		   -d [#] -l [#] -S -L logfile -f -b -c dir
		   -d num  debug level
		   -l num  log level (8 - default)
		   -S	   log to syslogd (default)
		   -L file log to file
		   -f	   run in fordeground
		   -b	   run in background (default)
		   -c dir  working dir

	   crontab    [-c dir] {file|-}|[-u|-l|-e|-d user]

		   file 	replace crontab from file
		   -		replace crontab from stdin
		   -u user	specify user
		   -l [user]	list crontab for user
		   -e [user]	edit crontab for user
		   -d [user]	delete crontab for user
		   -c dir	specify crontab directory

       cut cut	      [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Prints selected fields from each input FILE to standard output.


		   -b LIST	   Output only bytes from LIST
		   -c LIST	   Output only characters from LIST
		   -d CHAR	   Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
		   -s		   Output only the lines containing delimiter
		   -f N 	   Print only these fields
		   -n		   Ignored


		   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d
		   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d

	   date       [OPTION]... [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] [+FORMAT]

	   Displays the current time in the given FORMAT, or sets the system


		   -R		   Outputs RFC-822 compliant date string
		   -d STRING	   Displays time described by STRING, not now
		   -I[TIMESPEC]    Outputs an ISO-8601 compliant date/time string
				   TIMESPEC=date (or missing) for date only,
				   hours, minutes, or seconds for date and,
				   time to the indicated precision
		   -D hint	   Use hint as date format, via strptime()
		   -s		   Sets time described by STRING
		   -r FILE	   Displays the last modification time of FILE
		   -u		   Prints or sets Coordinated Universal Time


		   $ date
		   Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

       dc  dc	      expression ...

	   This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following opera
	   tions: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or,
	   not, eor.  For example: dc 2 2 add -> 4, and dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + /
	   -> 16.

	   Options: p - Prints the value on the top of the stack, without
	   altering the stack f - Prints the entire contents of the stack
	   without altering anything o - Pops the value off the top of the
	   stack and uses it to set the output radix

	       Only 10 and 16 are supported


		   $ dc 2 2 + p
		   $ dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + / p
		   $ dc 0 1 and p
		   $ dc 0 1 or p
		   $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p | dc

       dd  dd	      [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]
	   [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync]

	   Copy a file, converting and formatting according to options

		   if=FILE	   read from FILE instead of stdin
		   of=FILE	   write to FILE instead of stdout
		   bs=N 	   read and write N bytes at a time
		   count=N	   copy only N input blocks
		   skip=N	   skip N input blocks
		   seek=N	   skip N output blocks
		   conv=notrunc    dont truncate output file
		   conv=noerror    continue after read errors
		   conv=sync	   pad blocks with zeros

	   Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k
	   (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G


		   $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4
		   4+0 records in
		   4+0 records out

	   deallocvt  [N]

	   Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

	   delgroup   GROUP

	   Deletes group GROUP from the system

	   deluser    USER

	   Deletes user USER from the system

	   devfsd     mntpnt [-v][-fg][-np]

	   Optional daemon for managing devfs permissions and old device name


		   mntpnt  The mount point where devfs is mounted.

		   -v	   Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd
			   and the kernel-side protocol version and exits.

		   -fg	   Run the daemon in the foreground.

		   -np	   Exit  after	parsing  the configuration file
			   and processing synthetic REGISTER events.
			   Do not poll for events.

       df  df	      [-hmk] [FILESYSTEM ...]

	   Print the filesystem space used and space available.


		   -h	   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -m	   print sizes in megabytes
		   -k	   print sizes in kilobytes(default)


		   $ df
		   Filesystem		1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
		   /dev/sda3		  8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
		   /dev/sda1		    64216     36364	27852  57% /boot
		   $ df /dev/sda3
		   Filesystem		1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
		   /dev/sda3		  8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

	   dirname    FILENAME

	   Strips non-directory suffix from FILENAME


		   $ dirname /tmp/foo
		   $ dirname /tmp/foo/

	   dmesg      [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

	   Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer


		   -c		   Clears the ring buffers contents after printing
		   -n LEVEL	   Sets console logging level
		   -s SIZE	   Use a buffer of size SIZE

	   dnsd       [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

	   Small and static DNS server daemon


		   -c		   config filename
		   -t		   TTL in seconds
		   -p		   listening port
		   -i		   listening iface ip (default all)
		   -d		   daemonize

	   dos2unix   [option] [FILE]

	   Converts FILE from dos format to unix format.  When no option is
	   given, the input is converted to the opposite output format.  When
	   no file is given, uses stdin for input and stdout for output.


		   -u	   output will be in UNIX format
		   -d	   output will be in DOS format

	   dpkg       [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

	   dpkg is a utility to install, remove and manage Debian packages.


		   -i		   Install the package
		   -l		   List of installed packages
		   -C		   Configure an unpackaged package
		   -F depends	   Ignore depency problems
		   -P		   Purge all files of a package
		   -r		   Remove all but the configuration files for a package
		   -u		   Unpack a package, but dont configure it

	   dpkg-deb   [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

	   Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)


		   -c	   List contents of filesystem tree
		   -e	   Extract control files to [argument] directory
		   -f	   Display control field name starting with [argument]
		   -x	   Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
		   -X	   Verbose extract


		   $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

       du  du	      [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

	   Summarizes disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk
	   space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.


		   -a	   show sizes of files in addition to directories
		   -H	   follow symbolic links that are FILE command line args
		   -L	   follow all symbolic links encountered
		   -d N    limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
		   -c	   output a grand total
		   -l	   count sizes many times if hard linked
		   -s	   display only a total for each argument
		   -x	   skip directories on different filesystems
		   -h	   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -m	   print sizes in megabytes
		   -k	   print sizes in kilobytes(default)


		   $ du
		   16	   ./CVS
		   12	   ./kernel-patches/CVS
		   80	   ./kernel-patches
		   12	   ./tests/CVS
		   36	   ./tests
		   12	   ./scripts/CVS
		   16	   ./scripts
		   12	   ./docs/CVS
		   104	   ./docs
		   2417    .

	   dumpkmap   > keymap

	   Prints out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output.


		   $ dumpkmap > keymap

	   dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

	   Displays the DHCP leases granted by udhcpd.


		   -f,	   --file=FILENAME Leases file to load
		   -r,	   --remaining	   Interpret lease times as time remaing
		   -a,	   --absolute	   Interpret lease times as expire time

	   e2fsck     [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I
	   inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l|-L
	   bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E
	   extended-options] device

	   Check a Linux ext2/ext3 file system.


		   -p	   Automatic repair (no questions)
		   -n	   Make no changes to the filesystem
		   -y	   Assume yes to all questions
		   -c	   Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
		   -f	   Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
		   -v	   Be verbose
		   -b superblock   Use alternative superblock
		   -B blocksize    Force blocksize when looking for superblock
		   -j journal	   Set location of the external journal
		   -l file Add to badblocks list
		   -L file Set badblocks list

	   echo       [-neE] [ARG ...]

	   Prints the specified ARGs to stdout


		   -n	   suppress trailing newline
		   -e	   interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
		   -E	   disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters


		   $ echo "Erik is cool"
		   Erik is cool
		   $  echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"
		   $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"

	   eject      [-t] [DEVICE]

	   Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom).


		   -t	   close tray

       env env	      [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

	   Prints the current environment or runs a program after setting up
	   the specified environment.


		   -, -i   start with an empty environment
		   -u	   remove variable from the environment

	   ether_wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

	   Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines.  MAC must be a
	   station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or

	       a hostname with a known ethers entry.


		   -b		   Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address
		   -i iface	   Use interface ifname instead of the default "eth0"
		   -p pass Append the four or six byte password PW to the packet

	   expr       EXPRESSION

	   Prints the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

	   EXPRESSION may be:

		   ARG1 |  ARG2    ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
		   ARG1 &  ARG2    ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
		   ARG1 <  ARG2    ARG1 is less than ARG2
		   ARG1 <= ARG2    ARG1 is less than or equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 =  ARG2    ARG1 is equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 != ARG2    ARG1 is unequal to ARG2
		   ARG1 >= ARG2    ARG1 is greater than or equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 >  ARG2    ARG1 is greater than ARG2
		   ARG1 +  ARG2    arithmetic sum of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 -  ARG2    arithmetic difference of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 *  ARG2    arithmetic product of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 /  ARG2    arithmetic quotient of ARG1 divided by ARG2
		   ARG1 %  ARG2    arithmetic remainder of ARG1 divided by ARG2
		   STRING : REGEXP	       anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
		   match STRING REGEXP	       same as STRING : REGEXP
		   substr STRING POS LENGTH    substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
		   index STRING CHARS	       index in STRING where any CHARS is found,
					       or 0
		   length STRING	       length of STRING
		   quote TOKEN		       interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
					       it is a keyword like match or an
					       operator like /
		   ( EXPRESSION )	       value of EXPRESSION

	   Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
	   Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexico
	   graphical.  Pattern matches return the string matched between \(
	   and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number
	   of characters matched or 0.

	   fakeidentd [-b ip] [STRING]

	   Returns a set string to auth requests

		   -b	   Bind to ip address
		   STRING  The ident answer string (default is nobody)


	   Return an exit code of FALSE (1).


		   $ false
		   $ echo $?

	   fbset      [options] [mode]

	   Show and modify frame buffer settings


		   $ fbset
		   mode "1024x768-76"
			   # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz
			   geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16
			   timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4
			   accel false
			   rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0

	   fdflush    DEVICE

	   Forces floppy disk drive to detect disk change

	   fdformat   [-n] DEVICE

	   Low-level formats a floppy disk


		   -n	   Dont verify after format

	   fdisk      [-luv] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ]

	   Change partition table Options:

		   -l  List partition table(s)
		   -u  Give Start and End in sector (instead of cylinder) units
		   -s PARTITION  Give partition size(s) in blocks
		   -b 2048: (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
		   -C CYLINDERS  Set the number of cylinders
		   -H HEADS  Set the number of heads
		   -S SECTORS  Set the number of sectors
		   -v  Give fdisk version

	   find       [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

	   Search for files in a directory hierarchy.  The default PATH is the
	   current directory; default EXPRESSION is -print

	   EXPRESSION may consist of:

		   -follow	   Dereference symbolic links
		   -name PATTERN   File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN
		   -print	   Print (default and assumed)

		   -type X	   Filetype matches X (where X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
		   -perm PERMS	   Permissions match any of (+NNN); all of (-NNN);
				   or exactly (NNN)
		   -mtime DAYS	   Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);
				   or exactly (N) days
		   -mmin MINS	   Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);
				   or exactly (N) minutes
		   -newer FILE	   Modified time is more recent than FILEs
		   -inum N	   File has inode number N
		   -exec CMD	   Execute CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
				   files matching EXPRESSION


		   $ find / -name passwd

	   fold       [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

	   Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing
	   to standard output.


		   -b	   count bytes rather than columns
		   -s	   break at spaces
		   -w	   use WIDTH columns instead of 80


	   Displays the amount of free and used system memory


		   $ free
				 total	       used	    free       shared	   buffers
		     Mem:	257628	     248724	    8904	59644	     93124
		    Swap:	128516	       8404	  120112
		   Total:	386144	     257128	  129016

	   freeramdisk DEVICE

	   Frees all memory used by the specified ramdisk.


		   $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

	   fsck       [-ANPRTV] [ -C [ fd ] ] [-t fstype] [fs-options]
	   [filesys ...]

	   Check and repair filesystems.


		   -A	   Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
		   -N	   Dont execute, just show what would be done
		   -P	   When using -A, check filesystems in parallel
		   -R	   When using -A, skip the root filesystem
		   -T	   Dont show title on startup
		   -V	   Verbose mode
		   -C	   Write status information to specified filedescriptor
		   -t	   List of filesystem types to check

	   fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

	   Performs a consistency check for MINIX filesystems.


		   -l	   Lists all filenames
		   -r	   Perform interactive repairs
		   -a	   Perform automatic repairs
		   -v	   verbose
		   -s	   Outputs super-block information
		   -m	   Activates MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings
		   -f	   Force file system check

	   ftpget     [options] remote-host local-file remote-file

	   Retrieve a remote file via FTP.


		   -c, --continue	  Continue a previous transfer
		   -v, --verbose	  Verbose
		   -u, --username	  Username to be used
		   -p, --password	  Password to be used
		   -P, --port		  Port number to be used

	   ftpput     [options] remote-host remote-file local-file

	   Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP.


		   -v, --verbose	  Verbose
		   -u, --username	  Username to be used
		   -p, --password	  Password to be used
		   -P, --port		  Port number to be used

	   fuser      [options] file OR port/proto


		   -m	      Show all processes on the same mounted fs
		   -k	      Kill all processes that match.
		   -s	      Dont print or kill anything.
		   -4	      When using port/proto only search IPv4 space
		   -6	      When using port/proto only search IPv6 space
		   -SIGNAL    When used with -k, this signal will be used to kill

	   getopt     [OPTIONS]...

	   Parse command options

		   -a, --alternative		   Allow long options starting with single -
		   -l, --longoptions=longopts	   Long options to be recognized
		   -n, --name=progname		   The name under which errors are reported
		   -o, --options=optstring Short options to be recognized
		   -q, --quiet			   Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
		   -Q, --quiet-output		   No normal output
		   -s, --shell=shell		   Set shell quoting conventions
		   -T, --test			   Test for getopt(1) version
		   -u, --unquoted	   Do not quote the output


		   $ cat getopt.test
		   GETOPT=getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \
			  -n example.busybox -- "$@"
		   if [ $? != 0 ] ; then  exit 1 ; fi
		   eval set -- "$GETOPT"
		   while true ; do
		    case $1 in
		      -a|--a-long) echo "Option a" ; shift ;;
		      -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument $2" ; shift 2 ;;
			case "$2" in
			  "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2 ;;
			  *)  echo "Option c, argument $2" ; shift 2 ;;
			esac ;;
		      --) shift ; break ;;
		      *) echo "Internal error!" ; exit 1 ;;

	   getty      [OPTIONS]... baud_rate,... line [termtype]

	   Opens a tty, prompts for a login name, then invokes /bin/login


		   -h		   Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
		   -i		   Do not display /etc/issue before running login
		   -L		   Local line, so do not do carrier detect
		   -m		   Get baud rate from modems CONNECT status message
		   -w		   Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
		   -n		   Do not prompt the user for a login name
		   -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
		   -l login_app    Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login
		   -t timeout	   Terminate after timeout if no username is read
		   -I initstring   Sets the init string to send before anything else
		   -H login_host   Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname

	   grep       [-ihHnqvsEABC] PATTERN [FILEs...]

	   Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.


		   -H	   prefix output lines with filename where match was found
		   -h	   suppress the prefixing filename on output
		   -i	   ignore case distinctions
		   -l	   list names of files that match
		   -L	   list names of files that do not match
		   -n	   print line number with output lines
		   -q	   be quiet. Returns 0 if PATTERN was found, 1 otherwise
		   -v	   select non-matching lines
		   -s	   suppress file open/read error messages
		   -c	   only print count of matching lines
		   -f	   read PATTERN from file
		   -e	   PATTERN is a regular expression
		   -F	   PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
		   -E	   PATTERN is an extended regular expression
		   -A	   print NUM lines of trailing context
		   -B	   print NUM lines of leading context
		   -C	   print NUM lines of output context


		   $ grep root /etc/passwd
		   $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd

	   gunzip     [OPTION]... FILE

	   Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is -).


		   -c	   Write output to standard output
		   -f	   Force read when source is a terminal
		   -t	   Test compressed file integrity


		   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
		   $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
		   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

	   gzip       [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Compress FILE(s) with maximum compression.  When FILE is - or
	   unspecified, reads standard input.  Implies -c.


		   -c	   Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz
		   -d	   Decompress
		   -f	   Force write when destination is a terminal


		   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar
		   $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar
		   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

	   halt       [-d] [-n] [-f]

	   Halt the system.  Options:

		   -d		   delay interval for halting
		   -n		   no call to sync()
		   -f		   force halt (dont go through init)

	   hdparm     [options] [device] ..

	   Options:  -a   get/set fs readahead

		   -A	set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
		   -b	get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
		   -B	set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
		   -c	get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
		   -C	check IDE power mode status
		   -d	get/set using_dma flag
		   -D	enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
		   -f	flush buffer cache for device on exit
		   -g	display drive geometry
		   -h	display terse usage information
		   -i	display drive identification
		   -I	detailed/current information directly from drive
		   -Istdin  similar to -I, but wants /proc/ide/*/hd?/identify as input
		   -k	get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
		   -K	set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
		   -L	set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
		   -m	get/set multiple sector count
		   -n	get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
		   -p	set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
		   -P	set drive prefetch count
		   -q	change next setting quietly
		   -Q	get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
		   -r	get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
		   -R	register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
		   -S	set standby (spindown) timeout
		   -t	perform device read timings
		   -T	perform cache read timings
		   -u	get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
		   -U	un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
		   -v	defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
		   -V	display program version and exit immediately
		   -w	perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
		   -W	set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
		   -x	tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
		   -X	set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
		   -y	put IDE drive in standby mode
		   -Y	put IDE drive to sleep
		   -Z	disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
		   -z	re-read partition table

	   head       [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
	   than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
	   With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


		   -n NUM	   Print first NUM lines instead of first 10
		   -c NUM	   output the first NUM bytes
		   -q		   never output headers giving file names
		   -v		   always output headers giving file names


		   $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd

	   hexdump    [-[bcCdefnosvx]] [OPTION] FILE

	   The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files,
	   or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user speci
	   fied format

		   -b		   One-byte octal display
		   -c		   One-byte character display
		   -C		   Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
		   -d		   Two-byte decimal display
		   -n LENGTH	   Interpret only length bytes of input
		   -o		   Two-byte octal display
		   -s OFFSET	   Skip offset byte
		   -v		   display all input data
		   -x		   Two-byte hexadecimal display


	   Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine.

	   hostname   [OPTION] {hostname | -F FILE}

	   Get or set the hostname or DNS domain name. If a hostname is given
	   (or FILE with the -F parameter), the host name will be set.


		   -s	   Short
		   -i	   Addresses for the hostname
		   -d	   DNS domain name
		   -f	   Fully qualified domain name
		   -F FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname


		   $ hostname

	   httpd      [-c ] [-p ] [-u user] [-r ] [-m
	   pass] [-h home] [-d/-e ]

	   Listens for incoming http server requests.


		   -c FILE	   Specifies configuration file. (default httpd.conf)
		   -p PORT Server port (default 80)
		   -u USER Set uid to USER after listening privileges port
		   -r REALM	   Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
		   -m PASS	   Crypt PASS with md5 algorithm
		   -h HOME	   Specifies http HOME directory (default ./)
		   -e STRING	   Html encode STRING
		   -d STRING	   URL decode STRING

	   hwclock    [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-l|--local
	   time] [-u|--utc]

	   Query and set the hardware clock (RTC)


		   -r	   read hardware clock and print result
		   -s	   set the system time from the hardware clock
		   -w	   set the hardware clock to the current system time
		   -u	   the hardware clock is kept in coordinated universal time
		   -l	   the hardware clock is kept in local time

       id  id	      [OPTIONS]... [USERNAME]

	   Print information for USERNAME or the current user


		   -c	   prints only the security context
		   -g	   prints only the group ID
		   -u	   prints only the user ID
		   -n	   print a name instead of a number
		   -r	   prints the real user ID instead of the effective ID


		   $ id
		   uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

	   ifconfig   [-a]  [
] configure a network interface Options: [add
[/]] [del

		   [[-]broadcast [
]] [[-]pointopoint [
]] [netmask
] [dstaddr
] [outfill ] [keepalive ] [hw ether
] [metric ] [mtu ] [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti] [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen ] [[-]dynamic] [mem_start ] [io_addr ] [irq ] [up|down] ... ifdown ifdown <-ahinv> ifdown Options: -h this help -a de/configure all interfaces automatically -i FILE use FILE for interface definitions -n print out what would happen, but dont do it (note that this option doesnt disable mappings) -v print out what would happen before doing it -m dont run any mappings -f force de/configuration ifup ifup <-ahinv> ifup Options: -h this help -a de/configure all interfaces automatically -i FILE use FILE for interface definitions -n print out what would happen, but dont do it (note that this option doesnt disable mappings) -v print out what would happen before doing it -m dont run any mappings -f force de/configuration inetd inetd [-f] [-q len] [conf] Listens for network connections and launches programs Option: -f Run as a foreground progress -q Sets the size of the socket listen queue to the specified value. Default is 128 init init Init is the parent of all processes. This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel. BusyBox init doesnt support multiple runlevels. The runlevels field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit. BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is found, it has the following default behavior: ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS ::askfirst:/bin/sh ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r ::restart:/sbin/init if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run: tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows: ::: : WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init! The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for the specified process to run on. The contents of this field are appended to "/dev/" and used as-is. There is no need for this field to be unique, although if it isnt you may have strange results. If this field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console. Also note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null will be run. BusyBox init does nothing with utmp. We dont need no stinkin utmp. : The runlevels field is completely ignored. : Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait, once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown. The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified process exits. Run only-once actions: sysinit is the first item run on boot. init waits until all sysinit actions are completed before continuing. Following the completion of all sysinit actions, all wait actions are run. wait actions, like sysinit actions, cause init to wait until the specified task completes. once actions are asynchronous, therefore, init does not wait for them to complete. restart is the action taken to restart the init process. By default this should simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it can do all sorts of other interesting things. The ctrlaltdel init actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination. Typically one wants to run reboot at this point to cause the system to reboot. Finally the shutdown action specifies the actions to taken when init is told to reboot. Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap is a very good here Run repeatedly actions: respawn actions are run after the once actions. When a process started with a respawn action exits, init automatically restarts it. Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from respawning out of control. The askfirst actions acts just like respawn, except that before running the specified process it displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console." and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the specified process. Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an error message, and then go along with its business. All actions are run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab. : Specifies the process to be executed and its command line. Example /etc/inittab file: # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode. # ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys # # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be) ::askfirst:-/bin/sh # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4 tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys # tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4 tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5 # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal) # #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100 #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100 # # Example how to put a getty on a modem line. #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2 # Stuff to do when restarting the init process ::restart:/sbin/init # Stuff to do before rebooting ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a insmod insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]... Loads the specified kernel modules into the kernel. Options: -f Force module to load into the wrong kernel version -k Make module autoclean-able -v verbose output -q quiet output -L Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module -m Output load map to stdout -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME -x do not export externs install install [-cgmops] [sources] Copies files and set attributes Options: -c copy the file, default -d create directories -g set group ownership -m set permission modes -o set ownership -p preserve date -s strip symbol tables ip ip [ OPTIONS ] { address | link | route | tunnel } { COM MAND | help } ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help } where OBJECT := { link | addr | route | tunnel } OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link } | -o[neline] } ipaddr ipaddr { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush} [ dev STRING ] [ to PREFIX ] } ipaddr {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show|flush} [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX ] [ label PATTERN ] IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ] [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ] ipcalc ipcalc [OPTION]...
[[/]] [NETMASK] Calculate IP network settings from a IP address Options: -b --broadcast Display calculated broadcast address -n --network Display calculated network address -m --netmask Display default netmask for IP X -p --prefix Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK -h --hostname Display first resolved host name -s --silent Dont ever display error messages ipcrm ipcrm [-[MQS] key] [-[mqs] id] The upper-case options MQS are used to remove a shared memory seg ment by an shmkey value. The lower-case options mqs are used to remove a segment by shmid value. -m | -M Remove the memory segment after the last detatch -q | -Q Remove the message queue -s | -S Remove the semaphore ipcs ipcs [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tclup]] -i specify a specific resource id Resource specification: -m shared memory segments -q message queues -s sempahore arrays -a all (default) Output format: -t time -p pid -s creator -a limits -i summary iplink iplink iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } | dynamic { on | off } | mtu MTU } iplink show [ DEVICE ] iproute iproute { list | flush | { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE } iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos TOS ] iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ proto RTPROTO ] ROUTE := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ proto RTPROTO ] iptunnel iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [ NAME ] [ mode { ipip | gre | sit } ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ] [ ttl TTL ] iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [ NAME ] [ mode { ipip | gre | sit } ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ] [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] [ ttl TTL ] [ tos TOS ] [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] kill kill [-signal] process-id [process-id ...] Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es). Options: -l List all signal names and numbers Example: $ ps | grep apache 252 root root S [apache] 263 www-data www-data S [apache] 264 www-data www-data S [apache] 265 www-data www-data S [apache] 266 www-data www-data S [apache] 267 www-data www-data S [apache] $ kill 252 killall killall [-q] [-signal] process-name [process-name ...] Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es). Options: -l List all signal names and numbers -q Do not complain if no processes were killed Example: $ killall apache klogd klogd [-c n] [-n] Kernel logger. Options: -c n Sets the default log level of console messages to n -n Run as a foreground process lash lash [FILE]... or: sh -c command [args]... The BusyBox LAme SHell (command interpreter) This command does not yet have proper documentation. Use lash just as you would use any other shell. It properly han dles pipes, redirects, job control, can be used as the shell for scripts, and has a sufficient set of builtins to do what is needed. It does not (yet) support Bourne Shell syntax. If you need things like "if-then-else", "while", and such use ash or bash. If you just need a very simple and extremely small shell, this will do the job. last last Shows listing of the last users that logged into the system length length STRING Prints out the length of the specified STRING. Example: $ length Hello 5 less less [-EMNmh~?] FILE1 FILE2... View a file or list of files. The position within files can be changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways with the fol lowing options: -E Quit once the end of a file is reached -M Display a status line containing the current line numbers and the percentage through the file -N Prefix line numbers to each line -m Display a status line containing the percentage through the file -~ Suppress ~s displayed when input past the end of the file is reached. -h, -? Display this help message ln ln [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET You may use -- to indicate that all following arguments are non-options. Options: -s make symbolic links instead of hard links -f remove existing destination files -n no dereference symlinks - treat like normal file -b make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation -S suffix use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files Example: $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls $ ls -l /tmp/ls lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox* loadfont loadfont < font Loads a console font from standard input. Example: $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname loadkmap loadkmap < keymap Loads a binary keyboard translation table from standard input. Example: $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap logger logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE] Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin. Options: -s Log to stderr as well as the system log -t TAG Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name) -p PRIORITY Enter the message with the specified priority This may be numerical or a facility.level pair Example: $ logger "hello" login login [OPTION]... [username] [ENV=VAR ...] Begin a new session on the system Options: -f Do not authenticate (user already authenticated) -h Name of the remote host for this login -p Preserve environment logname logname Print the name of the current user. Example: $ logname root logread logread [OPTION]... Shows the messages from syslogd (using circular buffer). Options: -f output data as the log grows losetup losetup [-od] LOOPDEVICE [FILE] Associate LOOPDEVICE with FILE, or display current association. Options: -d Disassociate LOOPDEVICE -o OFFSET Start OFFSET bytes into FILE One argument (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current associa tion (if any), or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to. Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new associa tion, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not yet supported. ls ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhkK] [filenames...] List directory contents Options: -1 list files in a single column -A do not list implied . and .. -a do not hide entries starting with . -C list entries by columns -c with -l: show ctime --color[={always,never,auto}] to control coloring -d list directory entries instead of contents -e list both full date and full time -F append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries -i list the i-node for each file -l use a long listing format -n list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names -p append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries -L list entries pointed to by symbolic links -R list subdirectories recursively -r sort the listing in reverse order -S sort the listing by file size -s list the size of each file, in blocks -T NUM assume Tabstop every NUM columns -t with -l: show modification time -u with -l: show access time -v sort the listing by version -w NUM assume the terminal is NUM columns wide -x list entries by lines instead of by columns -X sort the listing by extension -h print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G ) -k print security context -K print security context in long format lsattr lsattr [-Radlv] [files...] list file attributes on an ext2 fs Options: -R recursively list subdirectories -a do not hide entries starting with . -d list directory entries instead of contents -l print long flag names -v list the files version/generation number lsmod lsmod List the currently loaded kernel modules. lzmacat lzmacat FILE Uncompress to stdout. makedevs makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir Creates a range of special files as specified in a device table. Device table entries take the form of: Where name is the file name, type can be one of: f A regular file d Directory c Character special device file b Block special device file p Fifo (named pipe) uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to to device special files. A - may be used for blank entries. Example: For example: /dev d 755 0 0 - - - - - /dev/console c 666 0 0 5 1 - - - /dev/null c 666 0 0 1 3 0 0 - /dev/zero c 666 0 0 1 5 0 0 - /dev/hda b 640 0 0 3 0 0 0 - /dev/hda b 640 0 0 3 1 1 1 15 Will Produce: /dev /dev/console /dev/null /dev/zero /dev/hda /dev/hda[0-15] md5sum md5sum [OPTION] [FILEs...] or: md5sum [OPTION] -c [FILE] Print or check MD5 checksums. Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. -c check MD5 sums against given list The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums: -s dont output anything, status code shows success -w warn about improperly formated MD5 checksum lines Example: $ md5sum < busybox 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 $ md5sum busybox 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 busybox $ md5sum -c - 6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003 busybox busybox: OK ^D mdev mdev [-s] -s Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot Called with no options (via hotplug) it uses environment variables to determine which device to add/remove. The mdev config file contains lines that look like: hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660 Thats device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions. Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by an asterisk and a command line to run after creating the corresponding device(s), ala: hdc root:cdrom 660 *ln -s hdc cdrom Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make the last line match .* to override this.) mesg mesg [y|n] mesg controls write access to your terminal y Allow write access to your terminal n Disallow write access to your terminal mkdir mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY... Create the DIRECTORY(ies) if they do not already exist Options: -m set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask -p no error if existing, make parent directories as needed Example: $ mkdir /tmp/foo $ mkdir /tmp/foo /tmp/foo: File exists $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz mke2fs mke2fs [-c|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o cre ator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device [blocks-count] -b size block size in bytes -c check for bad blocks before creating -E opts set extended options -f size fragment size in bytes -F force (ignore sanity checks) -g num number of blocks in a block group -i ratio the bytes/inode ratio -j create a journal (ext3) -J opts set journal options (size/device) -l file read bad blocks list from file -L lbl set the volume label -m percent percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin -M dir set last mounted directory -n do not actually create anything -N num number of inodes to create -o os set the creator os field -O features dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super -q quiet execution -r rev set filesystem revision -S write superblock and group descriptors only -T fs-type set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4) -v verbose execution mkfifo mkfifo [OPTIONS] name Creates a named pipe (identical to mknod name p) Options: -m create the pipe using the specified mode (default a=rw) mkfs.minix mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks] Make a MINIX filesystem. Options: -c Check the device for bad blocks -n [14|30] Specify the maximum length of filenames -i INODES Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem -l FILENAME Read the bad blocks list from FILENAME -v Make a Minix version 2 filesystem mknod mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR Create a special file (block, character, or pipe). Options: -m create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw) TYPEs include: b: Make a block (buffered) device c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device p: Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes Example: $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0 $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p mkswap mkswap [-c] [-v0|-v1] device [block-count] Prepare a disk partition to be used as a swap partition. Options: -c Check for read-ability -v0 Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs] -v1 Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels > 2.1.117) block-count Number of block to use (default is entire partition) mktemp mktemp [-dq] TEMPLATE Creates a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE. TEMPLATE is any name with six Xs (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX). Options: -d Make a directory instead of a file -q Fail silently if an error occurs Example: $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX /tmp/temp.mWiLjM $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM -rw------- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM modprobe modprobe [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value ...] Options: -k Make module autoclean-able -n Just show what would be done -q Quiet output -r Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean -s Report via syslog instead of stderr -v Verbose output modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads. The configuration file is searched (in order) amongst: /etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only) /etc/modules.conf /etc/conf.modules (deprecated) They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for. /etc/modules.conf entry format: alias Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module. It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more reprenstative name for that module (eg. scsi in place of aha7xxx). This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for the module and the alias. A module can be aliased more than once. options When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module. Sample /etc/modules.conf file: options tulip irq=3 alias tulip tulip2 options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308 Other functionality offered by classic modprobe is not available in this implementation. If module options are present both in the config file, and on the command line, then the options from the command line will be passed to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way, you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a specific usage from the command line. Example: (with the above /etc/modules.conf): $ modprobe tulip will load the module tulip with default option irq=3 $ modprobe tulip irq=5 will load the module tulip with option irq=5, thus overriding the default $ modprobe tulip2 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308, which are the default for alias tulip2 $ modprobe tulip2 irq=8 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8, which are the default for alias tulip2 overriden by the option irq=8 from the command line $ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210 will load the module tulip with default options irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210, which are the default for alias tulip2 overriden by the options irq=2 io=0x210 from the command line more more [FILE ...] More is a filter for viewing FILE one screenful at a time. Example: $ dmesg | more mount mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options] Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be mounted. Flags: -a: Mount all filesystems in fstab -f: "Fake" Add entry to mount table but dont mount it -n: Dont write a mount table entry -o option: One of many filesystem options, listed below -r: Mount the filesystem read-only -t fs-type: Specify the filesystem type -w: Mount for reading and writing (default) Options for use with the "-o" flag: async/sync: Writes are asynchronous / synchronous atime/noatime: Enable / disable updates to inode access times dev/nodev: Allow use of special device files / disallow them exec/noexec: Allow use of executable files / disallow them loop: Ignored (loop devices are autodetected) suid/nosuid: Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them remount: Re-mount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags ro/rw: Mount for read-only / read-write bind: Bind a directory to an additional location move: Relocate an existing mount point. There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem Youll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems Example: $ mount /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw) $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop $ mount cd_image.iso mydir mountpoint mountpoint [-q] <[-d] DIR | -x DEVICE> mountpoint checks if the directory is a mountpoint Options: -q: Be more quiet -d: Print major/minor device number of the filesystem -x: Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice Example: $ mountpoint /proc /proc is not a mountpoint $ mountpoint /sys /sys is a mountpoint mt mt [-f device] opcode value Control magnetic tape drive operation Available Opcodes: bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset mv mv [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY. Options: -f dont prompt before overwriting -i interactive, prompt before overwrite Example: $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar nameif nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}] Nameif renaming network interface while it in the down state. Options: -c FILE Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab) -s Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility) IFNAME MACADDR new_interface_name interface_mac_address Example: $ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F or $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file nc nc [OPTIONS] [IP] [port] Netcat opens a pipe to IP:port Options: -l listen mode, for inbound connects -p PORT local port number -i SECS delay interval for lines sent -e PROG program to exec after connect (dangerous!) -w SECS timeout for connects and final net reads Example: $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25 220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600 help 214-Commands supported: 214- HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH 214 NOOP QUIT RSET HELP quit 221 foobar closing connection netstat netstat [-laenrtuwx] Netstat displays Linux networking information. Options: -l display listening server sockets -a display all sockets (default: connected) -e display other/more information -n dont resolve names -r display routing table -t tcp sockets -u udp sockets -w raw sockets -x unix sockets nice nice [-n ADJUST] [COMMAND [ARG] ...] Nice runs a program with modified scheduling priority. Options: -n ADJUST Adjust the scheduling priority by ADJUST nohup nohup COMMAND [ARGS] run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty Example: $ nohup make & nslookup nslookup [HOST] [SERVER] Queries the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST option ally using a specified DNS server Example: $ nslookup localhost Server: default Address: default Name: debian Address: od od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [FILE] Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. openvt openvt [ARGS...] Start a command on a new virtual terminal Example: openvt 2 /bin/ash passwd passwd [OPTION] [name] Change a user password. If no name is specified, changes the pass word for the current user. Options: -a Define which algorithm shall be used for the password (Choices: des, md5 PASSWORD_ALG_TYPES(", sha1") ) -d Delete the password for the specified user account -l Locks (disables) the specified user account -u Unlocks (re-enables) the specified user account patch patch [-p] [-i] [-p] [-i] Example: $ patch -p1 ] [-n] [-f] Halt and shut off power. Options: -d delay interval for halting -n no call to sync() -f force power off (dont go through init) printenv printenv [VARIABLES...] print all or part of environment If no environment VARIABLE specified, print them all. printf printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...] Formats and prints ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, Where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf. Example: $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5 Val=5 ps ps Report process status USAGE_PS -c show SE Linux context w wide output Example: $ ps PID Uid Gid State Command 1 root root S init 2 root root S [kflushd] 3 root root S [kupdate] 4 root root S [kpiod] 5 root root S [kswapd] 742 andersen andersen S [bash] 743 andersen andersen S -bash 745 root root S [getty] 2990 andersen andersen R ps pwd pwd Print the full filename of the current working directory. Example: $ pwd /root rdate rdate [-sp] HOST Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST. Options: -s Set the system date and time (default) -p Print the date and time readlink readlink [-f] FILE Displays the value of a symbolic link. Options: -f canonicalize by following all symlinks readprofile readprofile [OPTIONS]... Options: -m (default: /boot/System.map) -p (default: /proc/profile) -M set the profiling multiplier to -i print only info about the sampling step -v print verbose data -a print all symbols, even if count is 0 -b print individual histogram-bin counts -s print individual counters within functions -r reset all the counters (root only) -n disable byte order auto-detection realpath realpath pathname ... Returns the absolute pathnames of given argument. reboot reboot [-d] [-n] [-f] Reboot the system. Options: -d delay interval for rebooting -n no call to sync() -f force reboot (dont go through init) renice renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[ -p | -g | -u ] ID ...] Changes priority of running processes. Options: -n adjusts current nice value (smaller is faster) -p process id(s) (default) -g process group id(s) -u process user name(s) and/or id(s) reset reset Resets the screen. rm rm [OPTION]... FILE... Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). You may use -- to indicate that all following arguments are non-options. Options: -i always prompt before removing each destination -f remove existing destinations, never prompt -r or -R remove the contents of directories recursively Example: $ rm -rf /tmp/foo rmdir rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY... Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty. Example: # rmdir /tmp/foo rmmod rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]... Unloads the specified kernel modules from the kernel. Options: -a Remove all unused modules (recursively) Example: $ rmmod tulip route route [{add|del|delete}] Edit the kernels routing tables. Options: -n Dont resolve names -e Display other/more information -A inet{6} Select address family rpm rpm -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm Manipulates RPM packages Options: -i Install package -q Query package -p Query uninstalled package -i Show information -l List contents -d List documents -c List config files rpm2cpio rpm2cpio package.rpm Outputs a cpio archive of the rpm file. run-parts run-parts [-t] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY Run a bunch of scripts in a directory. Options: -t Prints what would be run, but does not actually run anything -a ARG Pass ARG as an argument for every program invoked -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before executing every program runlevel runlevel [utmp] Example: $ runlevel /var/run/utmp N 2 rx rx FILE Receive a file using the xmodem protocol. Example: $ rx /tmp/foo sed sed [-efinr] pattern [files...] Options: -e script add the script to the commands to be executed -f scriptfile add script-file contents to the commands to be executed -i edit files in-place -n suppress automatic printing of pattern space -r use extended regular expression syntax If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option is given. Example: $ echo "foo" | sed -e s/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g bar seq seq [first [increment]] last Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INCREMENT. FIRST, INCREMENT default to 1 Arguments: LAST FIRST LAST FIRST INCREMENT LAST setarch setarch [args ...] Personality may be: linux32 Set 32bit uname emulation linux64 Set 64bit uname emulation setconsole setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE] Redirects system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty). Options: -r Reset output to /dev/console. setkeycodes setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE ... Set entries into the kernels scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes. SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal Example: $ setkeycodes e030 127 setsid setsid program [arg ...] Runs any program in a new session by calling setsid() before execing the rest of its arguments. See setsid(2) for details. sha1sum sha1sum [OPTION] [FILEs...] or: sha1sum [OPTION] -c [FILE] Print or check SHA1 checksums. Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. -c check SHA1 sums against given list The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums: -s dont output anything, status code shows success -w warn about improperly formated SHA1 checksum lines sleep sleep [N]... Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays. Example: $ sleep 2 [2 second delay results] $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s [98528 second delay results] sort sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o outfile] [-k start[.off set][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t char] [FILE]... Sorts lines of text in the specified files Options: -b ignore leading blanks -c check whether input is sorted -d dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only) -f ignore case -g general numerical sort -i ignore unprintable characters -k specify sort key -M sort month -n sort numbers -o output to file -k sort by key -t use key separator other than whitespace -r reverse sort order -s stable (dont sort ties alphabetically) -u suppress duplicate lines -z input terminated by nulls, not newlines -mST ignored for GNU compatability Example: $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort a b c d e f $ echo -e "c 3\nb 2\nd 2" | $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r d 2 b 2 c 3 start-stop-daemon start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [--start|--stop] ... [-- arguments...] Program to start and stop services. Options: -S|--start start -K|--stop stop -a|--startas starts process specified by pathname -b|--background force process into background -u|--user | stop this users processes -x|--exec program to either start or check -m|--make-pidfile create the -p file and enter pid in it -n|--name stop processes with this name -p|--pidfile save or load pid using a pid-file -q|--quiet be quiet -s|--signal signal to send (default TERM) stat stat [OPTION] FILE... display file (default) or filesystem status. Options: -c fmt use the specified format -f display filesystem status -L,-l dereference links -t display info in terse form Valid format sequences for files: %a Access rights in octal %A Access rights in human readable form %b Number of blocks allocated (see %B) %B The size in bytes of each block reported by %b %d Device number in decimal %D Device number in hex %f Raw mode in hex %F File type %g Group ID of owner %G Group name of owner %h Number of hard links %i Inode number %n File name %N Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link %o I/O block size %s Total size, in bytes %t Major device type in hex %T Minor device type in hex %u User ID of owner %U User name of owner %x Time of last access %X Time of last access as seconds since Epoch %y Time of last modification %Y Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch %z Time of last change %Z Time of last change as seconds since Epoch Valid format sequences for file systems: %a Free blocks available to non-superuser %b Total data blocks in file system %c Total file nodes in file system %d Free file nodes in file system %f Free blocks in file system %i File System ID in hex %l Maximum length of filenames %n File name %s Block size (for faster transfers) %S Fundamental block size (for block counts) %t Type in hex %T Type in human readable form strings strings [-afo] [-n length] [file ... ] Display printable strings in a binary file. Options: -a Scan the whole files (this is the default). -f Precede each string with the name of the file where it was found. -n N Specifies that at least N characters forms a sequence (default 4) -o Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file stty stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]... Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and devia tions from stty sane. Options: -F DEVICE open device instead of stdin -a print all current settings in human-readable form -g print in stty-readable form [SETTING] see manpage su su [OPTION]... [-] [username] Change user id or become root. Options: -p, -m Preserve environment -c Command to pass to sh -c -s Shell to use instead of default shell sulogin sulogin [OPTION]... [tty-device] Single user login Options: -f Do not authenticate (user already authenticated) -h Name of the remote host for this login -p Preserve environment sum sum [rs] [files...] checksum and count the blocks in a file Options: -r use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks) -s use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks) swapoff swapoff [-a] [DEVICE] Stop swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE. Options: -a Stop swapping on all swap devices swapon swapon [-a] [DEVICE] Start swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE. Options: -a Start swapping on all swap devices switch_root switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGUMENTS_TO_INIT] Use from PID 1 under initramfs to free initramfs, chroot to NEW_ROOT, and exec NEW_INIT. Options: -c Redirect console to device on new root sync sync Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk. sysctl sysctl [OPTIONS]... [VALUE]... configure kernel parameters at runtime Options: -n Use this option to disable printing of the key name when printing values -w Use this option when you want to change a sysctl setting -p Load in sysctl settings from the file specified or /etc/sysctl.conf if none given -a Display all values currently available -A Display all values currently available in table form Example: sysctl [-n] variable ... sysctl [-n] -w variable=value ... sysctl [-n] -a sysctl [-n] -p (default /etc/sysctl.conf) sysctl [-n] -A syslogd syslogd [OPTION]... Linux system and kernel logging utility. Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf. Options: -m MIN Minutes between MARK lines (default=20, 0=off) -n Run as a foreground process -O FILE Use an alternate log file (default=/var/log/messages) -S Make logging output smaller. -s SIZE Max size (KB) before rotate (default=200KB, 0=off) -b NUM Number of rotated logs to keep (default=1, max=99, 0=purge) -R HOST[:PORT] Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP) -L Log locally and via network logging (default is network only) -C [size(KiB)] Log to a circular buffer (read the buffer using logread) Example: $ syslogd -R masterlog:514 $ syslogd -R tail tail [OPTION]... [FILE]... Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. Options: -c N[kbm] output the last N bytes -n N[kbm] print last N lines instead of last 10 -f output data as the file grows -q never output headers giving file names -s SEC wait SEC seconds between reads with -f -v always output headers giving file names If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a +, output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2). Example: $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf nameserver tar tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE][-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ... Create, extract, or list files from a tar file. Options: c create x extract t list Archive format selection: z Filter the archive through gzip j Filter the archive through bzip2 a Filter the archive through lzma Z Filter the archive through compress File selection: f name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin O extract to stdout exclude file to exclude X file with names to exclude C change to directory DIR before operation v verbosely list files processed Example: $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf - $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local tee tee [OPTION]... [FILE]... Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output. Options: -a append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite -i ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT) Example: $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo $ cat /tmp/foo Hello telnet telnet HOST [PORT] Telnet is used to establish interactive communication with another computer over a network using the TELNET protocol. telnetd telnetd [OPTION] Telnetd listens for incoming TELNET connections on PORT. Options: -p PORT listen for connections on PORT (default 23) -l LOGIN exec LOGIN on connect (default /bin/sh) -f issue_file Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue test test EXPRESSION or [ EXPRESSION ] Checks file types and compares values returning an exit code deter mined by the value of EXPRESSION. Example: $ test 1 -eq 2 $ echo $? 1 $ test 1 -eq 1 $ echo $? 0 $ [ -d /etc ] $ echo $? 0 $ [ -d /junk ] $ echo $? 1 tftp tftp [OPTION]... HOST [PORT] Transfers a file from/to a tftp server using "octet" mode. Options: -l FILE Local FILE -r FILE Remote FILE -g Get file -p Put file -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets time time [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...] Runs the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS. When COMMAND fin ishes, COMMANDs resource usage information is displayed Options: -v Displays verbose resource usage information top top [-d ] top provides an view of processor activity in real time. This utility reads the status for all processes in /proc each and shows the status for however many processes will fit on the screen. This utility will not show processes that are started after program startup, but it will show the EXIT status for and PIDs that exit while it is running. touch touch [-c] FILE [FILE ...] Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]. Options: -c Do not create any files Example: $ ls -l /tmp/foo /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory $ touch /tmp/foo $ ls -l /tmp/foo -rw-rw-r-- 1 andersen andersen 0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo tr tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2] Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output. Options: -c take complement of STRING1 -d delete input characters coded STRING1 -s squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character Example: $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z] hello world traceroute traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q nqueries] [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i iface] [-z pausemsecs] host [data size] trace the route ip packets follow going to "host" Options: -F Set the dont fragment bit -I Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams -l Display the ttl value of the returned packet -d Set SO_DEBUG options to socket -n Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically -r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host -v Verbose output -m max_ttl Set the max time-to-live (max number of hops) -p port# Set the base UDP port number used in probes (default is 33434) -q nqueries Set the number of probes per ttl to nqueries (default is 3) -s src_addr Use the following IP address as the source address -t tos Set the type-of-service in probe packets to the following value (default 0) -w wait Set the time (in seconds) to wait for a response to a probe (default 3 sec) -g Specify a loose source route gateway (8 maximum) true true Return an exit code of TRUE (0). Example: $ true $ echo $? 0 tty tty Print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input. Options: -s print nothing, only return an exit status Example: $ tty /dev/tty2 tune2fs tune2fs [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group] [-i interval[d|m|w]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O [^]fea ture[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems. udhcpc udhcpc [-Cfbnqtv] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTER FACE] [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] -c, --clientid=CLIENTID Set client identifier -C, --clientid-none Suppress default client identifier -V, --vendorclass=CLASSID Set vendor class identifier -H, --hostname=HOSTNAME Client hostname -h, Alias for -H -f, --foreground Do not fork after getting lease -b, --background Fork to background if lease cannot be immediately negotiated -i, --interface=INTERFACE Interface to use (default: eth0) -n, --now Exit with failure if lease cannot be immediately negotiated -p, --pidfile=file Store process ID of daemon in file -q, --quit Quit after obtaining lease -r, --request=IP IP address to request (default: none) -s, --script=file Run file at dhcp events (default: /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script) -t, --retries=NUM Send up to NUM request packets -v, --version Display version udhcpd udhcpd [configfile] umount umount [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY Unmount file systems Flags: -a Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab -n Dont erase /etc/mtab entries -r Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy -l Lazy umount (detach filesystem) -f Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server) -D Do not free loop device (if a loop device has been used) Example: $ umount /dev/hdc1 uname uname [OPTION]... Print certain system information. With no OPTION, same as -s. Options: -a print all information -m the machine (hardware) type -n print the machines network node hostname -r print the operating system release -s print the operating system name -p print the host processor type -v print the operating system version Example: $ uname -a Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux uncompress uncompress [-c] [-f] [ name ... ] Uncompress .Z file[s] Options: -c extract to stdout -f force overwrite an existing file uniq uniq [-fscdu]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]] Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or standard input), writing to OUTPUT (or standard output). Options: -c prefix lines by the number of occurrences -d only print duplicate lines -u only print unique lines -f N skip the first N fields -s N skip the first N chars (after any skipped fields) Example: $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq a b c unix2dos unix2dos [option] [FILE] Converts FILE from unix format to dos format. When no option is given, the input is converted to the opposite output format. When no file is given, uses stdin for input and stdout for output. Options: -u output will be in UNIX format -d output will be in DOS format unlzma unlzma [OPTION]... [FILE] Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is - or omitted). Options: -c Write output to standard output -f Force unzip unzip [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir] Extracts files from ZIP archives. Options: -l list archive contents (short form) -n never overwrite existing files (default) -o overwrite files without prompting -p send output to stdout -q be quiet -x exclude these files -d extract files into this directory uptime uptime Display the time since the last boot. Example: $ uptime 1:55pm up 2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00 usleep usleep N Pause for N microseconds. Example: $ usleep 1000000 [pauses for 1 second] uudecode uudecode [FILE]... Uudecode a file that is uuencoded. Options: -o FILE direct output to FILE Example: $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu $ ls -l busybox -rwxr-xr-x 1 ams ams 245264 Jun 7 21:35 busybox uuencode uuencode [OPTION] [INFILE] REMOTEFILE Uuencode a file. Options: -m use base64 encoding per RFC1521 Example: $ uuencode busybox busybox begin 755 busybox $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu $ vconfig vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS] ... vconfig lets you create and remove virtual ethernet devices. Options: add [interface-name] [vlan_id] rem [vlan-name] set_flag [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1] set_egress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos] set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos] set_name_type [name-type] vi vi [OPTION] [FILE]... edit FILE. Options: -R Read-only- do not write to the file vlock vlock [OPTIONS] Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock Options: -a Lock all VTs watch watch [-n ] COMMAND... Executes a program periodically. Options: -n Loop period in seconds - default is 2 Example: $ watch date Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000 Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000 Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000 watchdog watchdog [-t ] DEV Periodically write to watchdog device DEV. Options: -t Timer period in seconds - default is 30 wc wc [OPTION]... [FILE]... Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input. Options: -c print the byte counts -l print the newline counts -L print the length of the longest line -w print the word counts Example: $ wc /etc/passwd 31 46 1365 /etc/passwd wget wget [-c|--continue] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document file] [--header header: value] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR] url wget retrieves files via HTTP or FTP Options: -c continue retrieval of aborted transfers -q quiet mode - do not print -P Set directory prefix to DIR -O save to filename (- for stdout) -Y use proxy (on or off) which which [COMMAND ...] Locates a COMMAND. Example: $ which login /bin/login who who Prints the current user names and related information whoami whoami Prints the user name associated with the current effective user id. xargs xargs [COMMAND] [OPTIONS] [ARGS...] Executes COMMAND on every item given by standard input. Options: -p Prompt the user about whether to run each command -r Do not run command for empty readed lines -x Exit if the size is exceeded -0 Input filenames are terminated by a null character -t Print the command line on stderr before executing it Example: $ ls | xargs gzip $ find . -name *.c -print | xargs rm yes yes [OPTION]... [STRING]... Repeatedly outputs a line with all specified STRING(s), or y. zcat zcat FILE Uncompress to stdout. zcip zcip [OPTIONS] ifname script zcip manages a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address. Options: -f foreground mode -q quit after address (no daemon) -r 169.254.x.x request this address first -v verbose; show version LIBC NSS GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS. If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal func tions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries. When used with glibc, the BusyBox networking applets will similarly require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in par ticular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*). Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries. MAINTAINER Rob Landley AUTHORS The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update. Emanuele Aina run-parts Erik Andersen Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files. Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that nobody is going to actually read. Laurence Anderson rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm Jeff Angielski ftpput, ftpget Edward Betts expr, hostid, logname, whoami John Beppu du, nslookup, sort Brian Candler tiny-ls(ls) Randolph Chung fbset, ping, hostname Dave Cinege more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file, various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance Jordan Crouse ipcalc Magnus Damm tftp client insmod powerpc support Larry Doolittle pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes. Glenn Engel httpd Gennady Feldman Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support, logread), various fixes. Karl M. Hegbloom cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c. Daniel Jacobowitz mktemp.c Matt Kraai documentation, bugfixes, test suite Stephan Linz ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence John Lombardo tr Glenn McGrath Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput, nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode. Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches. Manuel Novoa III cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes, mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string, get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir, mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable, interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route Vladimir Oleynik cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current); ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top; locale, various fixes and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect. Bruce Perens Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can still be found hiding here and there... Tim Riker bug fixes, member of fan club Kent Robotti reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches. Chip Rosenthal , wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications Pavel Roskin Lots of bugs fixes and patches. Gyepi Sam Remote logging feature for syslogd Linus Torvalds mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix Mark Whitley grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous), style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc. Charles P. Wright gzip, mini-netcat(nc) Enrique Zanardi tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance Tito Ragusa devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt. version 1.1.3 2007-01-21 BUSYBOX(1)

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